The American Revolution Chapter 6 I.The Opposing Sides 1. 2. No one expected the war to last long. The Patriots faced several obstacles: A. Britain had a larger population–over 8 million against 2.5 million. B. Britain had the strongest navy in the world and a welltrained army as well. C. The Americans did not have a regular army or navy. D. Many colonists belonged to militias who were basically volunteers and served for short periods of time. Continue 3. 4. Some African Americans were promised freedom if they fought for the British – so they became Tories. Patriots had some advantages: 5. 6. Fought on their own ground (home court) Personal stake in fighting George Washington (An excellent General) Raising an Army was hard. Congress had difficulties getting money & soldiers. Soldiers could sign up for 1 or 3 year terms. Some women also fought in the war. II. Fighting in NY & NJ 1. 2. 3. 4. British troops out numbered Americans (32,000 in 1777). GB defeated Americans at the Battle of Long Island. Washington retreated to PN. C. Army faced many obstacles. Few supplies, soldiers ran away, & low morale. Still, Washington managed to defeat GB at Trenton and Princeton NJ III. British Plan for Victory 1. 2. 3. British planned to gain control of Albany & the Hudson River and separate New England from the rest of the colonies. The Americans were able to slow down the British. New York would remain in the hands of the British for most of the war. IV. American Allies 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. France & Spain (both enemies of GB) decided to help the Americans out. France gave money, equipment, and troops (especially a navy). Washington spent a hard winter at Valley Forge (PN). A French nobleman, Marquis de Lafayette, spent the winter at Valley Forge and offered much support. Getting money to pay for the war continued to be a problem. Paper money becomes worthless. V. Life on the Homefront 1. 2. 3. Women often took over duties of men while they were off fighting. Loyalists continued to face hard times. Many fled to England and Canada. The issue of slavery was questioned, especially in light of the ideals of freedom for which people went to war. VI. Glory at Sea 1. 2. 3. GB had a powerful navy & was able to face battles at sea, blockade harbors, and cut of supplies and reinforcements. Americans used privateers (privately owned merchant ships). John Paul Jones became a naval hero as a result of his battle near GB. After a 3 hour fight, he won (although his ship sank) VII. Struggle in the South 1. 2. 3. 4. In 1778, GB knew that it would be hard to unite the colonies again. So they focused on the South which had many loyalists. By late 1778, GB occupied Savannah, by 1780, Charles Town (the worst defeat in the Rev. War). General Charles Cornwallis (GB) remained in the south as commander of the British. The Patriots used guerrilla warfare to fight the British. Frances Marion was the most successful. Cont. 5. 6. In April, 1781, Cornwallis marched north into Virginia (nearly capturing Jefferson). He set up camp at Yorktown, Virginia. Washington sent Lafayette to fight Cornwallis. The battle for the South was almost over, but both sides needed a victory to win. VIII. Victory & Independence 1. 2. 3. Washington planned a complex, secret takeover of Yorktown. He originally planned on attacking NY City, but changed his mind because a French fleet wouldn’t be able to help him. Yorktown plan was kept a secret. 3 groups were to meet there and the surprise the British. The plan worked. By the end of September, 14,000 French and American troops trapped Cornwallis 7,500 troops. The rest of the British army was stuck in NY City. Cont 4. 5. 6. On October 11, American and French troops bombarded the British. On Oct. 19, Cornwallis surrendered. Fighting continued, but the British realized that it would be too costly to continue the war. Delegates met in Paris to sign a peace treaty. IX. Treaty of Paris 1. Treaty of Paris said: A. B. C. D. E. Britain recognized the United States as an independent nation the United States territory extended from the Atlantic Ocean west to the Mississippi River and from Canada in the north to Spanish Florida in the south the British promised to withdraw all troops and agreed to give Americans the right to fish off the coast of Canada the United States agreed that British merchants could collect on debts owed by Americans property taken from Loyalists would be returned to them Cont. 1. 2. George Washington gave up his command on December 4. Americans won the war because: A. Americans fought on their own land. B. Americans controlled the countryside, where they knew the local terrain, even though Britain captured the cities. C. Help from other nations contributed to the victory. D. Mostly, the people fought the battles with determination and belief in their ideals.