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Classical Conditioning – The type of learning
in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to
evoke the response initially evoked by
another stimulus
◦ an item creates a response it wouldn’t normally
cause through pairing
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Introduction Clip
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=znAzMkn
5Ey0
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Ivan Pavlov
Conducted research on digestion, specifically role
of saliva in digestion process of dogs.
Pavlov presented meat (powder) to dogs, preceded
by a clicking sound to alert them of the food.
Over time, dogs salivated in response to clicking
sound.
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Pavlov further investigated phenomenon:
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Presented meat with a tone (bell)
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After several pairings, he presented bell alone
to dogs
◦ What happened?
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What is the significance of his research?
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1.) Unconditioned Stimulus (US)- The stimulus
that evokes a natural response.
◦ Pavlov Ex.)
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2.) Unconditioned Response (UR)- The natural
reaction to the unconditioned stimulus.
◦ Pavlov Ex.)
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3.) Conditioned Stimulus (CS)- Previously
neutral stimulus that, through conditioning,
evokes conditioned response.
◦ Pavlov Ex.)
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4.) Conditioned Response (CR)- Learned
reaction to conditioned stimulus that occurs
because of previous conditioning
***Usually the same as UR*******
◦ Pavlov Ex.)
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Trials- Presentations of the stimuli (US and
CS) together
◦ Pavlov Ex.)
◦ The Office Ex.)
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Number of trials needed for classical
conditioning to occur varies
“The Office”
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US-
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UR-
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CS-
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CR-
Shower Example
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US-
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UR-
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CS-
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CR-
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Many of our phobias and fears are direct
result of classical conditioning
Examples:
◦ Bridge Phobia
◦ Taco Bell
◦ Class Examples
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May be conditioned to associate stimulus
with positive feelings
Examples:
◦ Cotton candy ice cream
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Classical conditioning could even play a role
in sexual arousal
Example:
◦ Seinfeld clip
◦ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vLKhJnKrf9M
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1.) Acquisition- This term refers to the
learning of the conditioned response
2.) Extinction – This refers to a gradual
weakening and disappearance of conditioned
response
◦ How does this usually occur?
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3.) Spontaneous Recovery- After extinction, a
response may spontaneously reappear.
Real World Examples:
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Stimulus Generalization – An organism that
has learned a response to a specific stimuli
responds in same way to stimuli that are
similar to original stimulus.
◦ Clown Example
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John B. Watson study
◦ “Little Albert”- 11 month old
 Conditioned to fear bunnies
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Class examples, if time permits
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