SSUSH12: The student will analyze
important consequences of American
industrial growth.
Bell Ringer
Examine this
political cartoon:
1. What is the
2. What is the
message that
the artists
wishes to
3. Do you agree
with the
Essential Questions
How did the shift of immigrant origins affect urban America?
What role did Ellis Island play in immigration?
What caused the rise in labor consciousness in the late 1800’s
and early 1900’s? Include an explanation of the AFL
[American Federation of Labor], Samuel Gompers and the
Pullman strike.
Use the following notes to complete the handouts given
Use your textbook if needed
a. Describe Ellis Island, the change in immigrants’
origins to southern and eastern Europe and the impact
of this change on urban America.
• Ellis Island (NY) was the
entry point for many
European immigrants
• Immigrants had to pass
medical, mental, and
legal exams and have at
least $25 in order to
enter into the U.S.
European Immigration
• Up until the 1880s most European immigrants came
from Northern and Western Europe (Ireland,
England, Germany). Many of these “looked” like
Americans, and had similar religious and cultural
• Beginning in the late 1880s, a change began to
occur in the origin of immigrants. These “new”
immigrants began arriving from eastern and
southern Europe (Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia).
The “New” Immigrants
• Many of these new immigrants didn’t
speak English, came from non democratic
governments, had differing religions, and
didn’t “look” American.
The “New” Immigrants
• These new immigrants often settled together in east coast
cities (Little Italy), and worked in low paying factory jobs
• This new wave of
immigrants caused the
emergence of nativism:
an extreme dislike of
Why would these new
immigrants want to settle
together in cities?
Ellis Island Immigrants
Registry Room
Registry Room Today
Ellis Island
d. Describe the 1894 Pullman strike as an example of
industrial unrest.
• Pullman was a railroad car company.
– Workers lived in Pullman owned homes
– Pullman Company laid off 3,000 of 5,800
– Cut wages 25-50 percent, didn’t cut the rents
in the company town
– American Railway Union (led by Debs) began
strike, which turned violent
– Strikebreakers were hired
– Pres. Cleveland sent in federal troops to end
the strike
d. Describe the 1894 Pullman strike as an
example of industrial unrest.
• In 1894 the American Railway Union, led by
Eugene Debs, led a strike against the Pullman
Company (IL) who manufactured railroad cars
• President Cleveland sent in U.S. troops and
ordered the strike to end.
• The ARU collapsed as a Union as a result of
government intervention
b. Identify the American Federation of Labor and
• American Federation of Labor (AFL) - 1886
– Skilled workers only, smaller membership
– Used collective bargaining and strikes
– Some success with higher wages and shorter
work weeks
– Still exists today as AFL-CIO
– Founded by Samuel Gompers
• The AFL is still in existence today
As the AFL-CIO
c. Describe the growth of the western population and
its impact on Native Americans with reference to
Sitting Bull and Wounded Knee.
• Americans moved westward in the 1860s to
become ranchers, miners, and farmers.
• The settlers began to encroach on Native
American hunting grounds and broke numerous
How would fences
that were constructed
by farmers and ranchers
affect Native Americans?
Joining of the Transcontinental RR
(May 10, 1869)
c. Describe the growth of the western population and its
impact on Native Americans with reference to Sitting Bull
and Wounded Knee
• RR make it easier for people to move west
(transcontinental Railroad - 1869)
• Gov’t gives money and land grants to RRs
• Lifestyle of the Plains Indians is threatened:
– Nomadic – move from place to place
– Buffalo is important to life
• Settlers destroy buffalo population
– From 15 million in 1865 to 600 in 1886
Wounded Knee
• By the late 1880s most
western Indian tribes had been
resettled onto reservations
• Sitting Bull, a Sioux Chief, who
helped defeat Custer at the
Little Big Horn, had moved
onto a reservation and began
performing the “Ghost Dance”
which his followers believed
would bring back the buffalo,
and make the settlers
• Sitting Bull is ordered to stop,
but refuses and is killed while
being arrested
Wounded Knee
• Many of Sitting Bulls followers fled the
reservation after his death and camped at
Wounded Knee Creek with other Sioux
• The U.S Calvary, which was sent to escort the
Sioux back to the reservation, attempted
to disarm
them and
a fight broke
Wounded Knee
• In the massacre that followed, nearly 200 Sioux men,
women and children were killed
• Many of the injured froze to death
• Wounded Knee led many to question the treatment
of Native
and was the
last major
by Native
Chief Big Foot’s Body
Wounded Knee, SD, 1890
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