Chapter 20, Section 1

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Chapter 21, Section 1:
New Immigrants in a Promised Land
Main Idea: In the late 1800s, millions
of “new immigrants” came to the
United States in search of economic
opportunity and freedom.
A. Hopes and Fears
Push Factors –
conditions that drive people
away from their homeland
1. 1. Overpopulation – not
enough jobs, scarce land
2. 2. Poor Economy – poverty,
hardships (potato famine in
Ireland
3. 3. Persecution – religious
(Jews in Russia - pogroms)
& political (revolution)
Pull Factors –
conditions that attract
people to a new place
1. 1. Economic
Opportunity – lots of
jobs due to
industrialization
2. 2. Promise of Freedom
– religious & political
3. 3. Hope for a Better
Life – “streets are
paved with gold”
Immigration
late 19th and early 20th centuries
Push
Factors
fleeing
persecution
famine / poverty
• Russian Jews
• Armenians
lack of
farmland
in Europe
political
turmoil
• Irish
• Italians
• Irish
• Chinese
Mexicans
Immigration
late 19th and early 20th centuries
promise of
freedom and
a better life
Pull
Factors
join family
and friends
cheap land
and passage
to America
available
jobs in
factories
and mines
Lack of Farmland in Europe
German
English
African
Italian
Japanese
Mexican
• Land was scarce in
Europe, but it was
plentiful in the U.S.
Puerto Rican
American
Irish
B. The Unforgettable Voyage
Most immigrants traveled in steerage, the
lowest & cheapest deck on the ship. It was
often crowded, dirty & disease-ridden.
The Statue of Liberty (gift from France)
greeted arrivals in NYC after 1886. It came
to symbolize hope & freedom. Emma
Lazarus wrote “The New Colossus” (…give
me your tired, your poor, your huddled
masses yearning to breathe free…)
German
ship
carrying
immigrants
to Ellis
Island in
steerage.
(below
deck)
B. (continued)
Ellis Island – processing
station built in 1892
where immigrants were
registered (some name
changes) & inspected
(physical & mental)
before entry into US
Angel Island –
processing station in SF
for Asian immigrants
crossing the Pacific O.
The pens at Ellis Island, main hall. These people have passed
the first mental inspection. (1902-1913)
Angel Island
• From 1910 to 1940, thousands of immigrants, many of
whom were Asian, entered the United States through
Angel Island, CA.
C. Changing Patterns of Immigration
“Old Immigration”
1. Came before
1880ish
2. Came from NW
Europe (England,
Ireland, Germany,
etc.)
3. Tended to settle on
open land (cheap
& available
“New Immigration”
1. Came after 1880ish
2. Came from SE Europe
(Italy, Poland, Russia,
Greece, etc.), Asia &
Latin America
3. Tended to settle in
cities (industry jobs)
* This group had it more
difficult due to
D. Adjusting to a New Land
Reality differed from
expectations: “1st, the streets
were not paved w/ gold. 2nd,
the streets were not paved at
all. 3rd, they expected me to
pave them.”
Most immigrants settled in
ethnic neighborhoods (Little
Italy, China Town). This
helped them adjust to a new
country & keep old customs.
Assimilation – becoming
part of another culture. Kids
assimilated quicker because:
1. school (English, US history)
2. less attached to the old
ways
We love social studies!
Adjusting to a New Land
· Most immigrants stayed in the cities where they landed.
· By 1900, lower Manhattan was the most crowded
place in the world.
Hester Street, ca. 1900
· Immigrants adjusted by settling in communities with
people of their own ethnic group.
Little Italy, New York City
A Jewish vendor in Lower
East Side, New York City
· Assimilation was a long, slow process.
Assimilation - process whereby a minority group gradually
adopts the customs and attitudes of the majority culture.
E. Anti-Immigrant Feeling Grows
Nativism – anti- immigrant
feelings
Reasons:
1. overcrowding
2. prejudice (different
customs, etc)
3. complained that
immigrants took jobs & kept
wages low
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) – barred immigration
for 10 yrs (renewed several
times)
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