Fundamentals of Indoor Sports Floors: From Rubber to Polypropylene! Rubber Vinyl Polyurethane Polypropylene Synthetics Do What Concrete Can’t MAXIMUM SHOCK ABSORPTION & ENERGY RETURN. Energy IN vs. Energy OUT Synthetics Reduce Injury and Fatigue Surface Related Injuries: Abrasions Slip and Fall Muscle Pulls Torn Tendons Torn Ligaments Impact Injuries Synthetics Are Multipurpose Synthetics Save Money INSTALLATION Hardwood = $ Expensive Synthetic = VALUE MAINTENANCE NO Annual Recoats $$$ NO 7 to 10 yr Resands $$$$$ The University of Florida Synthetics are part of a Sustainable Design – Rapidly Renewable – Clean Production – Clean Installation – VOC Compliant – Long Life – Recyclable Britney Spears- Princess of Pop Tom Jones- King of Cool Both Ride on Vulcanized Rubber It All Started With Rubber • • • • • • Locomotive springs Conveyor belts. Seals for sewers. Flooring Inflatable boats. Clothing. Vulcanized Rubber Vulcanized Rubber = Rubber + Sulfur + Heat Natural Rubber from Hevea Tree Christopher Columbus Discovery of Rubber- 1499 • Discovered rubber on his third voyage to the New World from 1498-1500. Charles Goodyear - 1839 • No formal education. • Hardware dealer and inventor. • Accidentally discovered Vulcanization. • Died of Lead Poisoning. Thomas Hancock - 1843 • Stole idea from Goodyear. • Awarded patent rights. • Developed machinery. • Vulcan- Roman God of Fire. VULCANITE Sir Henry Wickham -1876 Expedition to Amazon Henry Ridley • Director of Singapore Botanic Gardens. • Encouraged rubber planting. Waldo Semon – 1933 • Accidentally invented vinyl at BF Goodrich trying to bond rubber to steel. • Grandfather fought in the Civil War and fought the Sioux with Custer. • Great-grandfather crossed the country for the California gold rush. • First job was working in Bill Cody’s Wild West Show. • 116 Patents. • Invented SBR (Government RubberStyrene) Helped save the world. • Invented synthetic rubber bubblegum. • Died in 1999. SBR & POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Characteristics of PVC Pliable and moldable. Inexpensive to make (sea water and petroleum). Chlorine makes it an inherent fire retardant. 60% of vinyl is used by the construction industry. Walter Diemer - 1928 • Invented conventional bubblegum. • Accountant for Fleer. BUBBLE GUM Otto Bayer - 1939 INVENTED POLYURETHANES Germany needed rubber substitutes during World War II. Invented high quality bristle brushes. POLYURETHANE Giulio Natta - 1954 Awarded the Nobel Prize at Milan Polytechnic for the introduction of polypropylene resins through the polymerization of polypropylene to produce stereo regular polymers. POLYPROPYLENE More Durable than Tom Jones Tom Jones circa 2002 Outperform Even Britney Spears! F - Numbers FF FL FLATNESS LEVELNESS FF 25 / FL 20 Flatness always comes first. “F 25” means “FF 25” F Numbers Are Linear The higher the number the better. FF 20 is twice as flat as FF 10 What Was Wrong With Straightedge? How to Interpret 1/8” in 10’? Unscientific and Non-repeatable . Almost Never Achieved. Straightedge Doesn’t Control The Floor All These Floors Meet 1/8” in 10’ What F-Number = 1/8” in 10’ FF 25 ≈ ± 1/4” defect in 10’ FF 50 ≈ ± 1/8” defect in 10’ FF 100 ≈ ± 1/16” defect in 10’ How F-Numbers Are Measured Dipstick ASTM E-1155 Not over expansion joints OK over saw cuts Minimum 30 readings Leave out 2’ border Exclude handwork areas How Readings Are Taken “Q” readings for flatness “Z” readings for levelness Problems For Us We go over expansion joints We include the 2’ border We include handwork areas Readings taken immediately after pour Saw cuts warp Our Spec is 1/8” in 10’ The End - Go Forth and Prosper!!