Australia and New Zealand: Physical Geography

Australia and New Zealand:
Physical Geography
• Australia and New Zealand are between the Indian and
Pacific Oceans.
• Australia’s seasons are opposite of the United States
due to their location. (Southern Hemisphere)
• Because of its isolation, Australia and New Zealand’s
plant and animal life are found nowhere else on earth.
• Some of the animals are marsupials, plants, birds, and
• The continent of Australia is moving 2 inches per year
towards Asia due to plate tectonics.
• New Zealand is made up of 2 major islands and was
formed by volcanoes.
Physical Geography
• New Zealand has a cooler climate than Australia
because it is farther from the equator.
• Most Australians live on the east and southeast coast
because of the mild climate and good rainfall.
• Australia and New Zealand’s people mostly live along
the coast in cities.
• Australia and New Zealand grow similar crops, produce
iron ore, coal, and natural gas, and raise sheep.
New Zealand
• Outback
• Great Dividing
• Great Barrier Reef
• Australian Alps
• Warm Climate
High Mountains
Large Forests
Cooler Climate
Unique Animals and Plant Life
of Australia and New Zealand
• What type of
mammals nurse their
young from a pouch?
Pg. 628
• What geographic
factor has helped
Australia’s wildlife be
unique? Pg. 628
Koala Bear
New Zealand
Tectonic Plates
• What continent was
Australia once
believed to be a part
of? Pg. 628
• How was New
Zealand formed? Pg.
• Which one is the
youngest, Australia or
New Zealand?
New Zealand: Created by
• As Australia drifted
away, the Australian
plate collided with the
Pacific plate.
• What is formed by the
plates colliding? Pg.
• What can they form
over time? Pg. 630
• Define Fiord:
• Define “geyser”:
Pacific Islands
• The Pacific Islands are archipelagos, which are chains of
• High islands are formed from volcanoes and are
• Low islands are made up of coral reefs or atolls.
• An atoll is a small coral island in the shape of a ring.
• Coral is a rock like material made up of the skeletons of
tiny sea creatures.
• Fewer people live on low islands than high islands.
• The Pacific is located in the tropics and hot year-round.
• Most islands receive rain year round and can have
• Most islanders depend on cash crops and tourism to
earn a living.
Pacific Islands
• Made up of low islands.
• Covers an area as large
as the continental U.S.
• Most islands are north of
the equator.
• Most of the 2,000 islands
are smaller than 1 square
• Melanesia has the most
• Most are large, high
• New Guinea is the largest
and most populated
• Formed by volcanoes.
• The largest island group in the
• It includes Hawaii.
• Dense rainforests on the
• Mostly formed by volcanoes.
Cultures of Australia and
• The Maori settled in New Zealand. They traveled from
Asia to the Pacific Islands to New Zealand 1,000 years
ago. 15% today are Maori.
• The Aborigines settled in Australia, coming from Asia
40,000 years ago.
• In the late 1700’s and 1800’s the British settled in the
region bringing the English language and Christianity.
• It first was a place to send prisoners to jail.
• When gold was discovered the population soared.
• Due to isolation the Pacific islands developed their own
culture, language, and religions.
Aboriginal People in
• How long ago was the
Aboriginal people believed to
have come to Australia? Pg.
• What ways are the
Aborigines trying to improve
their culture? Pg. 807 - 808
• What is there goal dealing
with the Australian
government today? Pg. 808
British Settlement of
Australia and New Zealand
• When did the British
Settle Australia and New
Zealand? Pg. 697
• What was Australia set
up as by the British? Pg.
• What discovery made
people want to move to
Australia? Pg. 697
Australia Economy
• Today Australia economy
depends on trade with
which countries? Pg. 805
• Australia is a world leader
in producing what cash
crop? Pg. 805
• Australia is the world
leader in the production
of what product from
sheep? Pg. 806
Low and High Islands
• What is an atoll? Pg.
• What are the main
features of low islands?
Pg. 635
• What are the main
features of low islands?
Pg. 635
Review Questions
1) What 2 oceans is Australia between?
2) Name the landform in the Coral Sea to
the northeast of Australia.
3) What is the desert area in Australia
4) How was New Zealand formed?
5) What is a coral island?
6) What type of island do most people in the
Pacific Islands live on?
Review Questions
7) What is a marsupial?
8) What are the major early ethnic groups in
Australia and New Zealand?
9) Who settled in Australia and New
Zealand in the 1700’s?
10)Name 3 things Australia depends on in
their economy.