Native People of Alaska Tlingit and Haida - Southeast Earliest Archeological Record is 10,000 years ago (ya) Tlingit and Haida Food: Salmon, sea mammals, berries Clothing: Cedar Bark, animal skins Settlements: Winter villages, summer fish camps *Art - carvings, weavings, and Totem Poles Tlingit and Haida Beliefs: Linked to the Raven and other animals through myths and legends. Personal Guardian spirits to assist in daily life (Powerful forces in the universe) Belief in reincarnation Belief in Shaman to foretell future events and identify witches Unangan (Aleuts): First settled around 8400 ya Food: sea foods including whales, and birds (hunted in boats called “bidarkas”) Settlements: Lived in “barabaras” wood frame/sod homes Clothing: Seal skin for waterproof garments. Sea otter and sea lion furs. Puffins for ceremonial clothing. Wore visors and hats. Art: woven baskets Unangan (Aleuts): Description of beliefs: Reincarnation of souls that move from above and below. Good and evil spirits. Animals have spirits. Charms provide special powers for successful hunts. Bering Sea Eskimos: Yup’ik or Yuit Earliest records vary from 9000ya to 4000ya. Food: sea mammals (walrus and fish), also large land mammals and berries. Settlements were permanent with wooden poles with sod and fur walls. There were many small structures, with a large communal structure for men. Settled in fish camps in summer. Yup’ik or Yuit: Clothing: made from walrus gut, seal skin, and fur. Made salmon skinned boots. Art: baskets and masks. Yup’ik or Yuit: Beliefs: All living things have a “yua”, or spiritual essence. Humans must remain respectful to nature. Animals recycle back into nature. Ceremonies with masks and drums with a theme of sharing with nature and each other. Northern Eskimos: Inupiat/Inuit Earliest record varies between 10,000ya and 4,000ya. Most similar to Asian populations. Northern Eskimos: Inupiat/Inuit: Food: Large marine mammals, caribou and fish. Hunted by “Umiak” (open boat.), snowshoes and later with dog sleds. Clothing: Parkas made from caribou skin and fur, seal skin socks. Northern Eskimos: Inupiat/Inuit Homes were semi-subterranean using the ground as insulation. Left for fishcamps in summer. “Qargus” (kalgis) were large homes for men and community gathering. Most homes were a dome made of caribou fur and willows. Northern Eskimos: Inupiat/Inuit Beliefs: Reincarnation and recycling of spirit forms for humans and animals. --When hunting, Inupiat would take care of animals at death to help them into the next life. Shamans could make cures and forecasters for weather and the future Healers were usually women who were experts in plant medicine. Interior Indians: Athabascans Archaeological record could be as old as 11,500ya. Food: Salmon, caribou and moose. Clothing: Tailored and form fitting. Used caribou skin and fur. Used porcupine quills, shells and dried berries and seeds for patterns and decoration. Interior Indians: Athabascans Settlements varied: Subterranean, log dwellings and large plank homes to portable dome dwellings made from fur. Interior Indians: Athabascans Beliefs: Relationship with the supernatural and animals, which humans must remain respectful to. Raven is a trickster and teaches right and wrong. Shaman is the medical healer and intermediary with the spirits. Pacific Eskimos: Aleutiiq/Sugpiaq/Dena’ina Earliest known date is between 7500ya to1750 ya. Food: fish, whales, and large sea mammals. Settlements: semi-subterranean homes made of wood, grass and sod. A large community building, “kazim”. Masks as spiritual faces Warfare important Pacific Eskimos: Aleutiq/Sugpiaq Beliefs: Steambaths were popular for spiritual purification, relaxing and socializing. Spiritual forces show how the universe functions and how humans were supposed to behave Shamans as “knowledgeable spirits” Belief in recycling between the levels. Good and evil spirits exist.