SIMPLE, COMPOUND, AND COMPLEX SENTENCES SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SENTENCES: • So far you have studied only simple sentences. A simple sentence has a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought. Sometimes two simple sentences can be combined into one sentence called a compound sentence. The simple sentences are joined by a comma and a connecting word like and, or, or but. Simple Sentences: Compound Sentence: Mary is a scientist. Mary is a scientist, and she travels often. She travels often. • Do not confuse a compound sentence with a simple sentence that has a compound subject, a compound predicate, or both. A compound sentence has a subject and a predicate on each side of the connecting word. Compound Subject Ann and I do research. Compound Predicate We write reports and read them aloud. Compound Subject and Compound Predicate She and I study and work together. Compound Sentence Ann types the report, and I proofread it. “TRY IT OUT”: Which sentences are compound sentences? Which are simple sentences with compound subjects or predicates? What is the connecting word that joins the parts of each compound sentences? 1. Ancient people in Peru made long lines, and they drew huge pictures of animals. 2. Oversized images were drawn, but they are a mystery. 3. Some lines are forty miles long, and some pictures are the size of two football fields. 4. Dirt, rocks, and stones were cleared from a dark layer of earth. 5. A sandy layer showed up clearly, and it still shows today. “ON YOUR OWN”: Label each sentence simple or compound. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Buses and planes bring tourists to Washington, D.C. Spring is here, and its breezy. I see cherry trees and smell their sweet blossoms. The Capitol has Saturday tours, but the FBI is closed then. The city is a symbol of the nation’s history, legacy, and unity. 6. Washington is named for George Washington, and D.C. stands for District of Columbia. CONJUNCTIONS: • The connecting words and, or, and but are called conjunctions. You can use conjunctions to make subjects, predicates, and sentences compound. The conjunction that you use depends on your purpose. • Use and to add information. • Use or to give a choice. • Use but to show contrast. I can swim and dive. Does he sail or swim? I swim, but Lee sails. “TRY IT OUT”: Choose the best conjunction. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Shall we sail now (but, or) wait until later? The wind is strong, (or, and) the waves are high. We might tip over (but, or) freeze out there! Sailing is a joy (but, and) not in bad weather. We could water-ski, (but, and) the sea is rough. You (and, but) I should shoot baskets instead. “ON YOUR OWN”: Write and, or, or but to complete each sentence. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. John, Sue, _____ I can steer. Help us raise the sail _____ pull up the anchor. I brought the picnic lunch, _____ I forgot the juice. We can sail to that island _____ stop now for a swim. John _____ Sue both want to go there. CONTINUATION: Choose the best conjunction. 1. Today Joe (and, or) I sail together. 2. We can sail to an island (or, but) stay near the coast. 3. I like the island, (and, but) Joe likes the coast better. COMPLEX SENTENCES: • You have learned that simple sentences can be joined by the words and, or, or but to form a compound sentence. Simple sentences can also be joined by other words to form a complex sentences. Simple Sentence I spotted the snake. It slid away. Compound Sentence I spotted the snake, and it slid away. Complex Sentence After I spotted the snake, it slid away. I spotted the snake before it slid away. • The words and, or, and but are coordinating conjunctions. They join sentence parts that are equal in importance, such as the parts of a compound sentence. The parts of a complex sentence, on the other hand , are joined by a subordinating conjunction. Subordinating conjunctions subordinate one sentence part to another. That is, they make one part less important than another. • Coordinating Conjunction I spotted the snake, and it slid away. • Subordinating Conjunction I spotted the snake before it slid away. • Subordinating Conjunction After I spotted the snake, it slid away. CONJUNCTIONS IN COMPLEX SENTENCES: TIP: If the subordinating conjunction begins the sentence, use a comma after the first part of the sentence. after because since when although before unless whenever as if until while “TRY IT OUT”: • Is each sentence simple, compound, or complex? If it is compound, what is the coordinating conjunction? If it is complex, what is the subordinating conjunction? 1. Consider the slow, soundless, isolated life of snakes before you judge them. 2. Snakes have no legs, but they can slither along the ground rapidly. 3. Snakes cannot move forward on glass because the surface is too smooth. 4. The number of snakes is decreasing as people build on open land. 5. Although not all snakes are deadly, humans often fear them. 6. Treatment for certain snake bites must be quick, or the person may die. 7. Snakes are solitary creatures and even hunt alone. 8. If you come upon a snake, do not disturb it. “ON YOUR OWN”: • For each sentence, write simple, compound, or complex. For each compound or complex sentence, write the conjunction. 1. Pythons seem scary because they can be so large. 2. While some pythons are only three feet long, others may grow to thirty feet. 3. Most pythons swim and climb with ease in their tropical environment. 4. Although pythons do not bite, they can be very dangerous. 5. Spotted pythons can be deadly, but they can also be quite beautiful. 6. Some of these colorful snakes change from yellow to green as they grow.