Sentence Structure

9 Grammar
Sentence Structure
SIMPLE SENTENCE
COMPOUND SENTENCE
COMPLEX SENTENCE
COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
Simple Sentence
 A simple sentence consists of a single
independent clause.
 We
worked long hours at the polling booth.
 Ed
and I checked and rechecked our answer.
Note
– a simple sentence can have a
compound subject and/or a compound verb.
Writing
 Use simple sentences for emphasis and
clarity
 Too many simple sentences, however,
can make your writing sound choppy
and disjointed
Compound Sentence
 A compound sentence consists of two or
more independent clauses joined by a
comma and a coordinating conjunction, by
a semicolon, by a semicolon and a
conjunctive adverb, or with a correlative
conjunction.
 My
brother bought some stamps yesterday, and
he mounted them in his stamp collection.
 Ben and I gobbled the oranges; they tasted very
good after the hike.
Coordinating Conjunctions
 Coordinating conjunctions link 2
independent clauses to form a
compound sentence.




For
And
Nor
But
Or
Yet
So
 She could not read, yet she played the piano
beautifully.
Conjunctive Adverbs
 Conjunctive adverbs are adverbs used as
conjunctions to connect complete ideas.
 They can follow a semicolon to give added
meaning to a compound sentence.
 They are often used as transitions,
creating bridges between different ideas by
showing comparisons, contrasts, results,
etc.
 She
could not read music; however, she
played the piano beautifully.
Conjunctive Adverbs
 Accordingly
 Furthermore
 Last
 Still
 Afterward
 However
 Later
 Sure
 Again
 In addition
 Likewise
 Then
 Also
 In fact
 Meanwhile
 Thereafter
 Anyhow
 Indeed
 Moreover
 Therefore
 As a result
 Instead
 Nevertheless  Thus
 At the time
 Next
 Besides
 Now
 Consequently
 On the other
 Conversely
hand
 Otherwise
 Similarly
 Soon
 Finally
 For example
 For instance
 Too
Correlative Conjunctions
 Correlative conjunctions are paired conjunctions
that link balanced words, phrases, and clauses
Either … or
 Neither … nor
 Both … and
 Not only … but also
 Just as … so
 The more … the less
 The more … the more

Writing
 Use compound sentences to clarify relationships
 to
join ideas of equal importance
 Several
researchers have proven garlic is good for the heart;
consequently, many people with heart disease use garlic in
their meals.
 to
explain how ideas are related
 and
– additional information
 but, yet – contrast or opposites
 No one wants to pay more taxes, yet taxes are necessary to
support vital public services.
 for, so – causes or effects
 or, nor – choices or options
Complex Sentence
 A complex sentence consists of one
independent clause and one or more
subordinate clauses.
 When
the Fourth of July arrives, I will celebrate
along with everybody else.
 Our band, which won the trophy, will perform
after the game is over.
Complex Sentence
 When the dependent clause appears
first, it is followed by a comma
 When the independent clause comes
first, a comma is not used
Subordinate Conjunctions
 Subordinate conjunctions can link
independent and dependent clauses to
form a complex sentence.
 Although
she could not read music, she
played the piano beautifully.
Subordinate Conjunctions










After
Although
As
As far as
As if
As long as
As much as
As soon as
As though
Because










Before
Even if
Even though
How
If
Inasmuch as
In order that
Just as
Lest now that
Once












Provided
Provided that
Since
So that
Than
That
Though
Till
Unless
Until
What
Whatever











When
Whenever
Where
Wherever
Whereas
Whereby
Whether
Which
While
Who
Whom
Writing
 Use complex sentences to show subordinate
relationships

To show that one or more ideas are less important than
(or subordinate to) another idea
 Circumstance
- as, as far as, as soon as, as if, as though, even
though, even if, in order to
 Causes or effects – because, since, so that
 Time – before, after, while, until, when
 Condition – whether, if, unless, even if
Compound-Complex Sentence
 A compound-complex sentence consists
of two or more independent clauses and
one or more subordinate clauses.
I
ran down the path to the spot where it
divides, and then I turned back.
Writing
 Use compound-complex sentences occasionally to
express complicated relationships
 Use them sparingly; when overused, they tend to
make your writing sound wordy and labored
Writing– Sentence Structure
 Sentences should:
Be clear and concise
 Be varied
 Contain elements and parts that are parallel *
 Contain strong, active verbs *

* These concepts will be introduced in future lessons
Writing
 Sentences that are concise convey their meaning
in as few words as possible
Writing – Concise Sentences
 Avoid wordy expressions and/or empty
phrases




In the near future, another revolution in computer
technology is bound to occur.
Another revolution in computer technology is bound to
occur soon.
In light of the fact that computer technology changes every
month or so, software upgrades are what everybody has to
do.
Since computer technology changes monthly, software
upgrades are necessary.
Writing– Concise Sentences
 Eliminate redundancy
My decision to choose the field of accounting as my
major will lead to steady, rewarding employment.
 Choosing accounting as my major will lead to steady,
rewarding employment.

The type of slang I notice teenagers using is part of the
way they establish who they are and what their identity
is.
 Teenagers use slang to establish their identity.

Writing– Concise Sentences
 Eliminate unnecessary sentence
openings
It is my opinion that fast-food restaurants should
post nutritional information for each menu item.
 Fast-food restaurants should post nutritional
information for each menu item.

Many people would agree that nutritious food and
snacks are a priority for health-conscious people.
 Selecting nutritious food and snacks is a priority for
many health-conscious people.

Writing– Concise Sentences
 Eliminate unnecessary adverbs
The journalist was very elated when he learned that he
had won a Pulitzer Prize.
 The journalist was elated when he learned that he had
won a Pulitzer Prize.

The college president was quite disturbed by the
findings of the Presidential Panel on Sex Equity.
 The college president was disturbed by the findings of
the Presidential Panel on Sex Equity.

Writing– Concise Sentences
 Eliminate unnecessary phrases or clauses
The complaints of students in the college encouraged
the dean to create additional parking spaces for cars.
 The students’ complaints encouraged the dean to
create additional parking areas.

The teenagers who were mall walkers disagreed with
the editorial in the newspaper that supported the
shopping mall regulations.
 The teenage mall walkers disagreed with the
newspaper editorial supporting shopping mall
regulations.

Writing – Sentence Variety
 Short sentences tend to be sharp and emphatic;
they move ideas forward quickly, creating a fast
pace
 Longer sentences, in contrast, move the reader
more slowly through the essay
Writing – Sentence Variety
 Play with the pattern of a typical sentence

Subject-verb
 Vary the placement of modifiers in your sentences
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