The End of Fighting I. Germany Collapses • Germany needed to deal a decisive blow to the allied powers before the U.S. had time to raise an army, train soldiers, and get to the front line • German troops no longer needed to fight Russia so in March 1918 troops were transferred to France and German forces came within 40 miles of Paris. • U.S. troops arrive and in the Second Battle of the Marne the German assault is stopped. Armistice or peace signed on the 11th hour of the 11th month on the 11th day- November 11, 1918 II. What was the impact of World War I? • The war killed 8.5 million people and left more than 21 million men disabled. Casualties Allied Powers • Britain : 750,000 soldiers killed; 1,500,000 wounded France : 1,400,000 soldiers killed; 2,500,000 wounded Belgium : 50,000 soldiers killed Italy : 600,000 soldiers killed Russia : 1,800,000 soldiers killed (1.5 million civilians) America : 116,000 soldiers killed Central Powers • Germany : 2,000,000 soldiers killed Austria-Hungary : 1,200,000 soldiers killed Turkey : 325,000 soldiers killed Bulgaria : 100,000 soldiers killed Paris Peace Conference “Putting the World Back Together” The Major Players - “The Big Four” Woodrow Wilson USA George Clemenceau “The Tiger” - France David Lloyd George “The Welsh Wizard” GB Vittorio Orlando Italy Wilson’s 14 Points Peace and Reconciliation • 1) Restoration of social order, world trade • 2) National self-determination – Right to your own country and the right to choose your own government • 3) Leniency toward Germany • 4) Establish a League of Nations Clemenceau Security and Reparations • 1) Wants reparations to pay for damages to their country – At the end of WWI Germany had a “scorched earth policy” • 2) Weaken Germany to make sure they won’t be a threat again David Lloyd George Colonial Domination • 1) Reduce Germany’s navy • 2) Reduce Germany’s colonial empire • 3) Protect Europe from spread of Communism – Wanted Germany to be a barrier to Communism – But felt the pressure from British citizens to punish Germany Vittorio Orlando Give Us Land • 1) Territory – He wants to get his “fair share” of the spoils The Decision Making Process • Large group proved too troublesome • Big 4 meet secretly in Wilson’s plush Parisian apartment – It is here that they hash out the specifics of the treaty… What They Decide to do With Germany • 1) Pay reparations- $32 billion (later reduced by half) • 2) Army reduced to 100,000 men • 3) No air force or subs – Only allowed 6 ships • 4) Lose Alsace and Lorraine (west) Polish territory splits country in east • 5) Rhineland demilitarized • 6) Saar Basin goes to France for 15 years - mineral rich basin • 7) Lose all overseas colonies • 8) Held responsible for the whole war Article 231 “War Guilt Clause” “Stabbed in the Back” • Germany was never allowed to negotiate • At the end of the war, Germany still had men fighting on foreign soil "Had our army had our workmen, on the 5th and 9th of November, known that peace would have looked that way, – Our allies lost, not us! – That means we didn’t really the army would not have laid lose! down its arms; it would have • German people never held out." really accept the terms of -Conrad Haussmann (Vice the Treaty of Versailles President of the German National Assembly) – It was our government that signed an unjust treaty…stabbing us in the back! Why does Germany Sign? • Told to sign and if not…they would be invaded by the Allied powers • What does this cartoon seem to be saying? Europe’s New Boundaries 1914 1919 You be a Delegate • Whose goals were met the most? • As a delegate not from France, Great Britain, Italy, or the United States, how do you feel about what is going on? • As a German delegate what is your reaction to the treaty process and the final version of the treaty? “War to end all wars” or “Twenty year truce?” You know what happened in 1939, why do you think the Treaty of Versailles failed?