The study of fresh bodies of water Lentic: standing water (lakes and ponds) Lotic: flowing water (streams and rivers) How might they be different? Glacial erosion and deposition - movement of glaciers eroded land (Great Lakes) Deposition of silt, driftwood, and other debris in slow-flowing streams- cuts off a meander and forms a crescent shape or oxbow lake. Shifts in the Earth’s crust- tectonic movement; valleys and craters fill with water Nongeological activity: manmade dams, log jams, strip mining (all lakes in TX except one, which one???) High specific heat of water make aquatic environment temperatures more stable than terrestrial Epilimnion: surface water, small temperature change Metalimnion: middle mass of water with a rapid temperature decline (1°C/ meter) Thermocline: temperature gradient found in metalimnion Hypolimnion: deep cold layer cutoff from air; most dense Summer- large thermocline. Why? Winter- Surface water loses heat to atmosphere therefore thermocline decreases Overturn: surface water temp. decreases and causes water to mix and stir up nutrients and dissolved oxygen because of density changes (Fall and Spring) Enters the water by absorption from the atmosphere and by photosynthesis The amount of oxygen and other gases water can hold depends upon pressure and temperature As temperature increases- solubility of dissolved oxygen decreases As pressure increase- solubility of DO increases Water loses oxygen through increased temperature, increased respiration of aquatic life, and aerobic decomposition During the summer, oxygen may become stratified in lakes and ponds The quantity of oxygen decreases with depth because of decomposition in the bottom sediments During Spring and Fall overturn- water circulation (churning) replenishes oxygen in the bottom In winter- DO decreases slightly with depth; DO is more stable because cold water can hold more DO than warm water The depth to which light penetrates is limited by turbidity of the water and the absorption of light rays Trophogenic zone- layer through which light can penetrate and where photosynthesis occurs (photic zone) Tropholytic zone- layer through which light cannot pass through and where decomposition occurs Compensation level-where photosynthesis ends and decomposition begins 1. Littoral zone- (horizontal) shallow water zone where light penetrates the bottom emergents- plants whose roots are underwater and stems and leaves are above water. Live in the littoral zone. submergents-completely below water 2. Limnetic Zone -Open water zone where photosynthesis occurs Plankton- suspended/floating organism Phytoplankton- photosynthetic plankton; algae Zooplankton- animal-like plankton; rotifer Nekton-free swimming organisms Is carried out in the limnetic zone by phytoplankton (ALGAE) and in the littoral zone by macrophytes- large aquatic plants (emergents and submergents) 6CO2 + 6H2O + light C6H12O6 + 6O2 (photosynthetic equation) 1)Title your paper Lentic Ecosystem- mid-summer 2) Draw a cross section of a lake on your paper (this should take up a considerable amount of room on your paper). 3) Use your Freshwater Ecosystem Notes and laptop to label following on the cross section of a lake: Epilimnion, Metalimnion, Hypolimnion, Thermocline, Benthic Zone Littoral Zone, Limnetic Zone, Trophogenic Zone, Tropholytic Zone, Compensation Depth 4) Use your freshwater Ecosystem Notes and laptop and draw in examples in their proper places of the following the cross section of a lake: sun, sun rays, emergents, submergents, algae, and fish. Label where decomposition and photosynthesis are occurring. 1. 2. 3. Rainwater runs off - dissolves and carries nutrients into lakes. Water carries with it silt, clay, organic matter, and nutrients in solution to enrich the aquatic ecosystem Human activities including road building, logging, mining, construction, and agriculture add to the amount of silt and organic matter Eutrophication- nutrient enrichment of an aquatic ecosystem Oligotrophication- nutrient poor aquatic ecosystem Deeper, steep sides Poorly developed littoral zone Blue-green water, clear High in DO Poor in phosphorous, nitrogen, and calcium Few organisms but a high diversity Very little organic matter Shallow Rich in organic matter and nutrients DO depletion in hypolimnion during summer due to decomposition Eventually will turn into a bog or marsh Lots of organisms, low diversity For a healthy ecosystem you want a balance between eutrophic and oligotrophic. There needs to be enough nutrients for organisms to grow and reproduce. Flowing Water Habitats Creeks, streams, and rivers The flow of the water influences the lives of the organisms inhabiting the waters and the physical characteristics of the stream. http://www.scienceclarified.com/landforms/images/ueol_03_img01 08.jpg Headwaters: streams that join together and form a river Near headwaters river usually flow fast and currents are swift Rocky bottom Higher levels of D.O. due to flow and temperature of the water. Velocity decreases River gets wider and wider Meanders become common (curves) Pools: where water is deeper and slows down, filled with fine sediments Riffles: faster, shallower with rocky bottom Run: fast flowing water, deeper water The meandering Tigre River, Argentina . PHOTOGRAPH REPRODUCED BY PERMISSION OF THE CORBIS CORPORATION Read more: http://www.scienceclarified.com/landforms/OceanBasins-to-Volcanoes/Stream-and-River.html#ixzz1147UMeyX http://www.geographyhigh.connectfree.co.uk/s3riversgeoghigh26f. gif http://belmont.sd62.bc.ca/teacher/geology12/photos/erosionwater/Meander_processes.jpg Flat stretches of land on either side of a slow moving river During storms, rivers overflow and flood these areas When water recedes deposits of rich sediment are left behind ; fertile land Less oxygen Warmer temperature Communities of catfish, algae, turtles, dragonflies and other organisms that can live in lower DO. Usually empties into an ocean or a lake. Water slows even more Sediment is deposited and creates new land called a delta. Where a river meets an ocean, freshwater mixes with salt water, an estuary is formed. Estuaries are important nurseries for lots of aquatic organisms. http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2117/2279411722_17c2675fb1.jp g In temperate regions, leaves and other plant parts (Coarse particulate organic matter or CPOM) are the main source of energy available to the stream ecosystem. Headwaters: more CPOM Benthic invertebrates: shredders and collectors Fish: trout (colder more oxygenated water) Near headwaters: high O2, colder temperatures, CPOM Further downstream: lower O2, warmer temperatures, FPOM Affects which species flourish in a given area Down stream: Fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) washed down from headwaters Algae (both filamentous and planktonic) and plants are more common because of slower water and more sunlight. Few shredders, more collectors and grazers. Fish: Carp and catfish, tolerate lower D.O. and warmer temperatures.