Rise of fascism and militarism in Germany, Italy, and Japan

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 Mussolini
rises to power in 1922 in response
to economic crisis, threat of communism
 “Black Shirts” marched into Rome and
installed Il Duce into power
 It is this Fascist or extreme nationalism which
bridges the divides between ideologies within
Italy.
 Heavy support from veterans who feel that
Italy hardly benefitted from World War I
 There is still however a King but power is
diminished because of Mussolini’s popularity.
 Hitler
and Nazism begins to gain popularity
in early 1920’s.
• Blames non-Germans for all of Germany’s problems,
including Jews and communists especially
 Hyperinflation
in 1923 (1914 4 mark/1 US
Dollar; July 1923 160,000/1; August 1923
1,000,000/1; November 130,000,000/1)
leads to Beer Hall putsch and Hitler sent to
prison for nine months where he writes Mein
Kampf
 Germany
rebounds economically until
1929 and the world Depression
 Parliamentary elections 1930 and 1932
bring Nazism and communism back to
forefront and Hitler assumes power in
1933 as Chancellor and upon Hindenberg’s
death in 1934, assumes both Presidency
and chancellory into the Fuhrer
 Immediately Germany grows out of debt
and unemployment with mass investment
in public works and military
Used China especially Manchuria to build economic
empire on par with the Western world in 1934.
 Purpose was one of survival in industrialized world
 Spreads to rest of China by July of 1937
 Soviets consider Japan a bigger threat than
Germany and the U.S. does little to interfere with
Manchuria until 1940
 Tojo rises to power as a military leader then Prime
Minister in October 1941
 He is not a fascist but firmly believes in Japan’s right
in controlling any sphere necessary for survival and
is grossly anti-western nations (unless needed,i.e.
Germany)

 Germany
and Japan anti-commintern
1936 against the Soviets
 Germany and Italy 1936 Berlin Axis
 Tripartite: Germany, Italy and Japan 1940
 Washington
Conference
• Five power, nine power, and four power treaty*
 Good
Neighbor Policy
• Pan-American conference 1933
• Platt amendment nullified 1934
• Did not take bait when Mexico nationalized some oil fields
• Reciprocal trade agreements
 Revisionist
History of World War I
 Neutrality Acts
• The Neutrality Act of 1935
• The Neutrality Act of 1936
• The Neutrality Act of 1937
 Cash
and Carry 1939
 Selective Service Act 1940
 Destroyers for Bases 1940
 December 1940 “We must be the great
arsenal of democracy”
 Four Freedoms, Speech, religion, from
want, from fear
 Lend-Lease Act 1941
 Atlantic Charter 1941
 Shoot on Sight 1941
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