First Contact and New France Getting Started • Study the drawing of Jacques Cartier claiming the Gaspe Peninsula for France on the opposite page. • Understanding the impact of claiming this land for France is important to understanding the history of Nouvelle-France, First Peoples, and Canada. • What issues and consequences do you predict happening from Cartier planting this cross? – Did Cartier "discover" this land? – Did Cartier have the right to claim this land for the King of France? – Why might First Peoples have welcomed Europeans? – What were the long-term consequences of the European presence for First Peoples? Why Explore? • Humans have always sought to explore new frontiers. • Whether it is exploring new continents, new oceans, or the universe around us, the quest for new land, resources, and power has propelled humans to go where it is assumed that no one has gone before. The Vikings • In 986 CE, Bjarni Herjolfsson, while sailing to Greenland from Iceland, was blown off course by a storm and reported seeing land that was not Greenland. • While Herjolfsson did not actually stop at this new land, a few years later, another Viking explorer, Leif Ericson, followed Herjolfsson's route. – Noting an abundance of trees as he passed by what is now Labrador, he named the area Markland (forest land). – Eventually, he landed on Newfoundland and called the region Vinland (wine land) after he discovered what he thought were vines and grapes The Vikings and Aboriginal Contact • Although Ericson had hostile confrontations with some First Nations people in Vinland, he also traded with others. • With the support of some First Nations communities, Ericson established what is believed to be the first European settlement in North America: LAnse aux Meadows. • Although Ericson and his men stayed in Vinland for only three years, stories of this land inspired other European explorers to take the risk and sail across the ocean to what would become known to Europeans as the New World. • By the beginning of the sixteenth century, it became known by its present name of North, Central, and South America. Unearthing L'ANSE AUX MEADOWS • When and how was it discovered? • What does it mean to be a World Heritage Site? • Do you think this land should be preserved as such a site? Why or Why not? First Contact • The arrival of Europeans to North America meant not only new opportunities for First Nations people, but also new challenges. • Different communities had their first contact with Europeans at different times – the first contact between the Vikings and First Nations in Vinland around 1000 CE, – John Cabot and the Beothuk in 1497 – Jacques Cartier and the Mi'kmaq in 1534 – Canadian Arctic Expedition and the Kitlinermiut (Copper Inuit) and Netsilingmiut (Netsilik Inuit) in 1915. • Statue of Leif Ericson in Greenland The Doctrine of Terra Nullius • When European explorers sailed to North America, they claimed their "discovery" for their mother country. However, the land was not theirs to discover. • First Nations peoples had been living there for thousands of years. • Europeans in the fifteenth century approached the Americas with a worldview that was confident in the superiority of European cultures. • They also believed in the doctrine of terra nullius. Terra nullius is a Latin expression meaning "land belonging to no one" that describes territory over which no country has claimed authority. • As explorers travelled throughout the Americas, they claimed the land for their European countries, believing that no one owned it, even though it was clear that other people were living on the land. • The European explorers also believed that because First Nations cultures were not Christian, the land could not belong to them. • This European worldview helps explain why Europeans seized the lands they explored, even though the lands were already used and occupied by other peoples. Lets Think • Explain the doctrine of Terra Nullius in your own words • Were Europeans justified in applying this doctrine to the “new world” they discovered in North America? • What were some of the justifications that Europeans used to support this world view? • Put yourself in the position of North America’s First Peoples. How would you have felt about these new inhabitants of your traditional lands? Reasons for Exploration and Colonization • By the fifteenth century, navigational techniques had improved and new inventions such as the compass and the astrolabe made the trip from Europe across the Atlantic Ocean to North America more secure and faster. The Northwest Passage • During this period, all of Europe's trade with Asia went through the city of Constantinople (known today as Istanbul, Turkey). • In 1453, the city fell to Muslims, which cut Europe o ff from the riches of Asia. • European countries began to look south around the tip of Africa, and west across the Atlantic in the hopes of finding a new route to Asia. • After becoming aware of North America's existence, they looked for the Northwest Passage, a route around North America through the Arctic Ocean John Cabot and the Northwest Passage • After hearing about Columbus's voyages, England commissioned Italian navigator Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot) to find the Northwest Passage. • In 1497, Cabot arrived in present-day Newfoundland, where he raised a cross and England's banner to claim the land for King Henry VII . • Cabot's reports of waters full of codfish reached different parts of Europe, and soon other countries were sending expeditions to the Grand Banks to drop their nets and return home after the catch was completed. Subsequent Explorations • As a route to Asia was still desired by many European countries, such as Spain, France, Portugal, Italy, and England, hundreds of adventurers tried to make the dangerous journey across freezing Arctic and Atlantic waters. • British explorers who looked for the Northwest Passage included: – Sir Martin Frobisher (1576, 1577, 1578 expeditions) – John Davis (1585, 1586, 1587 expeditions) – Sir John Franklin (1845-1847). Henry Hudson’s Voyage • The best-known northern mariner was Henry Hudson. • In 1610, he ventured into a strait that would one day be named in his honour and sailed southward into a wide expanse of water that he supposed to be the Northwest Passage to Asia. • When the water proved to be an inland sea (Hudson Bay), however, his crew mutinied and the captain and his close associates were set adrift in the ship's small rowboat. • Four mutineers survived to tell the story in England, but Hudson's party was never heard from again. Abundant Natural Resources • As the quest for the Northwest Passage continued, more explorers reached North and South America. European countries began to realize the riches these lands possessed. • When news spread from the Spanish about the abundance of rich minerals such as gold in what is now Central and South America, the French and British increased their efforts to explore and settle in North America, and to exploit the natural resources that existed there. • As competition became more intense, the desire to secure their investments increased. • Building permanent settlements was one way to deter their European competitors. Mercantilism • A popular economic theory in Europe, especially during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, was the theory of mercantilism. • Mercantilism is the belief that a country could accumulate wealth by exporting more goods than it imported. • However, to manufacture these goods, countries needed a steady supply of raw materials. • Countries wanted to obtain these raw materials from within their own empires, and they looked to North America as a source. • Mercantilism not only spurred further exploration of North America, but also convinced European countries that they should establish permanent settlements there. • They believed that settlements would be an excellent market in which to sell manufactured goods that were created within the empire. Competition Between Countries • Another factor that fuelled the colonization of the Americas was the intense rivalry for power among European countries. • One way of increasing their power was to claim and occupy new lands. • Colonialism, the control and exploitation of a territory through settlement, increased in intensity during the seventeenth century. • In North America, Spain, Portugal, Britain, and France competed to colonize the most territory. The Religious Impulse to Colonize • As European explorers brought back stories about First Peoples, many religious groups believed it was their duty to spread the Christian faith to these unknown cultures. • Without regard for First Peoples' rich and diverse spiritual traditions, religious groups believed that Christianity would "help" First Peoples and benefit their cultures. • The potential for religious converts prompted religious leaders to contribute to their government's exploration funds. Colonization and the Future • These three reasons for colonization changed the history of North America forever – Mercantilism – Competition – The desire to spread Christianity Early French Colonization and Exploration • While many British explorers searched Arctic waterways to reach the riches of Asia, the French tried to find an internal route through the continent. In so doing, they cultivated a French cultural presence in North America. • In 1523, the Italian explorer working for the French crown, Giovanni da Verrazano, set sail for the famed Northwest Passage, only to find the eastern coastline of the presentday state of South Carolina. • Undeterred, he headed north, hoping to find another inlet to take him to Asia. • On this voyage, he sailed to present-day Newfoundland. He abandoned his original mission, claiming that there would never be a way around this huge obstacle we now know as North America. Early Explorers and Aboriginal Knowledge • The earliest Europeans to reach North America quickly realized they needed to form relationships with First Nations peoples. – First Nations people understood the land – they knew the geography – they had developed trade routes and effective methods of transportation – they could use resources from the environment around them to create medicine and to feed and clothe themselves. • In order to survive, Europeans needed First Nations help. • One of the first French explorers to realize this need was Jacques Cartier. Cartier’s First Voyage • In 1534, inspired by Verrazano, Jacques Cartier convinced the French monarch, Francis I, to fund another expedition to North America. • In 1534, Cartier set out from St. Malo, France, and crossed the Atlantic and entered Canada through the Gulf of St. Lawrence. • During his first voyage, Cartier placed a cross on what is now the Gaspe Peninsula, claiming the land for the King of France. Cartier’s First Contact • During his first exploration, Cartier came into contact with First Nations people three times. • When he met the St. Lawrence River Haudenosaunee (Iroquois), he was introduced to their leader, Donnacona. • In preparation for future voyages, Cartier persuaded Donnacona to allow his two sons, Domagaya and Taignoagny, to go back to France with Cartier. • There, they were taught French so that they could be effective translators for his future voyages. • Cartier gained valuable information about the region's geography from Chief Donnacona's sons. • While Cartier had not discovered a route to Asia, he did report on the abundant resources of fish, furs, timber, and fertile land. • Eager to take advantage of these invaluable resources, the French administration funded Cartier's second expedition. Cartier’s Second Voyage • Cartier's second voyage in 1535 took him up the St. Lawrence River. • He stopped at the First Nations community called Stadacona. • He continued upstream until he reached the large Haudenosaunee city of Hochelaga. • That winter, Cartier returned to Stadacona, but the winter was harsh and Cartier lost twenty-five of his men to scurvy. • The death toll would have been much higher i f Domagaya had not showed the Europeans how to prepare a medicinal drink, called annedda, that combined cedar leaves and bark. The Effect of First Contact • The First Nations people at Stadacona began to die from European diseases such as smallpox. • First Nations people had no immunity and no cure for these diseases. • Relations between the French and the Stadaconians had become strained as the death toll among the First Nations people increased, but Cartier knew he needed their continued help i f he was to succeed in travelling through this unfamiliar land. • Before leaving for France, Cartier captured Donnacona, his two sons, three other leaders, and four children and held them as captives on the return trip to Europe. • None of the captives ever saw their homeland again, and all but one died in France before Cartier's return voyage. Cartier's treatment of the Stadaconians proved to be disasterous for his next voyage to North America. Cartier’s 3rd and Final Voyage • Stories of riches, such as gold and spices, and the route to Asia in a land Donnacona had called the Kingdom of Saguenay, prompted the funding for Cartier's final expedition in 1541. • This voyage, however, was treacherous for the French. • Because Cartier had intended to stay in Canada for some time, he brought cattle and supplies, and he even planted crops upon his arrival. • The third expedition, however, was plagued by scurvy, a formidable winter and, not surprisingly, an unfriendly reception from the Haudenosaunee, who mourned the death of their leader, Donnacona. • The Haudenosaunee began to conduct attacks on the French in retaliation, and Cartier lost thirty five of his men. • By the next spring, Cartier was forced to return to France, and all plans for colonization were abandoned. Failure? • Although he failed to find the Northwest Passage or establish a colony, Cartier charted much of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and sailed the St. Lawrence River, which became the main entry point for future French exploration and colonization efforts. • However, after his final return to Europe, France found itself in a long civil war, and is expeditions to North America came to a halt for fifty years European Explorers Project • Together with your group (~4 members) you will prepare a 5-7 minute presentation on one of the explorers listed below: – – – – – – – Ericson Columbus” the good” Columbus “the bad” Cabot Cartier “the good” Cartier “the bad” Hudson • Important concepts to review within your presentation: – Who were they, and from where did they sail (mini biography)? – What were they looking for? What did they find? – Did they have any contact with First Nations people in the Americas? If so, what did it consist of? – What is their legacy? • Additional things to keep in mind (this may help you get a great mark!) – Do you research (look at class notes as well as outside sources – As much as possible weave the Historical Thinking Concepts previously discussed through your presentation Samuel de Champlain • By the end of the sixteenth century, after decades of warfare, France needed new sources of wealth to renew its resources. • King Henri IV believed that wealth could be found in the natural riches of North America, especially its beaver pelts. • The king founded a company whose goal was to create a colony in North America. – The company was also given a monopoly—the exclusive right to trade—over the fur trade in an area known as Acadia (presentday Nova Scotia and New Brunswick). – In 1604, the head of the company, Pierre du Gua de Monts, set sail from France to Acadia. – On this journey, de Monts brought with him a geographer and cartographer named Samuel de Champlain, who later became known as the "Father of New France." Quebec City • Champlain and de Monts established a colony at Ile Ste. Croix in 1604, and then moved it to Port Royal (in present-day Nova Scotia) in 1605 due to its more sheltered location. – At Port Royal, Champlain used the idea of communal living and established the Order of Good Cheer to encourage settlers to work together to ensure their survival. – The Order of Good Cheer also organized festivities to help keep an optimistic mood among the men. • In 1607, however, Champlain and the French were forced to abandon Port Royal when de Monts‘ trade monopoly was revoked. • Determined to establish a lasting colony, Champlain turned his sights to the location where Stadacona once stood. – The village was now abandoned. – Historians believe that changes in the local environment, warfare, or diseases brought by Cartier may have caused the people to leave their village. • Champlain chose this site because of its advantageous location for trade, its fertile ground, and because it could be defended if ever under attack. – He named his new colony Quebec, which he took from the Algonquian word Kebec, meaning, "where the river narrows." Montreal • The founding of Quebec in 1608 established a base for French colonial power in North America and the beginning of a permanent French presence and culture in North America. • In 1642, under the leadership of Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve, about forty colonists from Quebec helped missionaries form the new colony of Ville-Marie where the former Haudenosaunee village, Hochelaga, once stood. • Ville-Marie later became known as Montreal. The Political Organization of Nouvelle France • As the first permanent French colony, Quebec experienced growing pains as it tried to establish itself in a foreign and often challenging environment. • In the 150 years between 1604 and 1759, the colony underwent dramatic changes. Royal Government in Nouvelle France • In order to allow his new colony of Quebec to grow and prosper, Champlain needed French investors to provide money to harvest the natural resources in North America and help develop the settlement. • In April 1627, Champlain convinced one of the most powerful people in France, Cardinal Richelieu, to establish a group of 100 investors. – This group was called the Company of One Hundred Associates. – Its purpose was to establish a French empire in North America for the purpose of : 1. Trade 2. Settlement 3. the conversion of First Nations people to Catholicism. – The Company was given administrative control over the territory that France claimed. Early Growth • During the next thirty-six years, Nouvelle-France grew slowly, and the colony faced attacks by the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy. – As you will learn later in this chapter, the Haudenosaunee had formed an alliance with the British and went to the St. Lawrence area to disrupt trade between the French and the Wendat (Huron) nations. • With the French colonists living in fear, trade did not develop, the land was not cleared or farmed, and there was little support from France in terms of defence. – But all this changed when King Louis X IV came to the throne of France. – Louis X IV was determined to make Nouvelle-France an important part of the French Empire. Nouvelle France Becomes a Colony • Because the Company of One Hundred Associates had not fulfilled its contract in terms of achieving a certain number of settlers and income from trade and goods, King Louis X IV dismissed the company and made Nouvelle-France a royal colony in 1663. • As a royal colony, Nouvelle-France would be governed by a system of Royal Government. Every aspect of life came under the control of the French monarch and his appointed council. The Sovereign Council • Although the French monarchs did not travel to NouvelleFrance, they did receive reports from the key officials who represented them in an administrative organization known as the Sovereign Council. • The council was composed of: – an intendant, who was responsible for administering the justice, policies, and finances of the colony – a governor, who controlled military matters and external policy – a bishop – Five counsillors. • Initially, all the members of the Sovereign Council came directly from France, but as time elapsed, some appointments were given to people who were born in Nouvelle-France. Growing Independence • During the early years of royal rule, the French government showed great interest in Nouvelle-France's affairs. • As France became involved in other European wars, however, Nouvelle-France became more independent from France. • Another factor that led Nouvelle-France to become more independent from France was the geographic distance between the colony and its mother country. • Requests from Quebec were often sent out in the autumn before the St. Lawrence froze over, yet any solution or replies from France did not reach Quebec until the following spring. • Nouvelle-France often had no alternative than to begin to take action on its own. Militia and Defense of Nouvelle France • The relationship between the French immigrants and the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) became increasingly unfriendly. • The issue of defence became important, not only to the immigrants themselves, but also to King Louis XIV, who sent 1100 members of the Carignan-Salieres Regiment to Quebec. • The regiment undertook two expeditions against the Haudenosaunee in 1666. – The first expedition did not engage in any encounters – but on the second expedition, the regiment burned villages around Lake Champlain and destroyed the Haudenosaunee winter stock of grain. • This act influenced the Haudenosaunee to sign a peace treaty with the French colonists. Militia • Along with the troops sent from France, Quebec had organized its own militia in an effort to defend the colony against attack. – The strength and size of the militia grew, as in 1669 King Louis XIV ordered that all able bodied males in NouvelleFrance between the ages of sixteen and sixty must belong to the militia. – As many men had experience in the North American environment from the fur trade or from hunting, the militia became an effective group of fighters. – By the end of the seventeenth century, each parish along the St. Lawrence had its own militia. – Besides defending their parishes and homes, the militia also helped with the building of roads, bridges, and buildings. The Growth of Nouvelle France • Within twenty years of being under Royal Government, French territory had expanded to encompass a large tract of present-day North America • Governor Louis Buade, Comte de Frontenac, had great dreams of a French empire that would control of all of North America. • Even as French officials often warned of overextending their resources, Frontenac encouraged expeditions to allow France to take control of areas such as the Mississippi Valley. • In the north, French territory stretched from Newfoundland to the eastern region of what is now Manitoba. By 1682, Nouvelle-France controlled a large section of the continent. Social Organization of New France The Role of the Church • Just as it did in France, the Roman Catholic Church played an important role in the colony of Nouvelle-France. • The role of the Church consisted of two parts. – The first and foremost role was to provide religious services for the colony and to try to convert First Nations people. • From the very beginning, the Catholic Church assumed First Nations people "needed“ to be converted to Christianity. – The second role of the Roman Catholic Church in NouvelleFrance was to help with the social needs of the colony, such as • providing education • Hospitals • assistance to the poor Missionaries • During the early years of the colony, many missionary groups came to Nouvelle- France to help spread the Roman Catholic faith. • The first missionaries in Nouvelle-France were the Recollets. – Arriving in 1615, they made the first attempts to work with First Nations in the hopes of converting them to Christianity. – While they had little success, the Recollets were soon helped by a larger missionary group—the Jesuits The Jesuits • From as early as 1625, the Society of Jesus, whose missionaries were called the Jesuits, worked in Nouvelle-France with the primary goal of converting First Nations people to Christianity. • The Jesuits believed that converting people to their faith was a service to humankind. • To help achieve their goal, the Jesuits decided they could make progress if they lived among First Nations and learned their languages and cultures. • The Jesuits established settlements among: – Wendat (Huron) – Algonquin – Innu (Montagnais) nations. • As time went on, some First Nations people did convert to Catholicism. • However, the converts often came into conflict with those who followed the traditional ways of their people. • In addition, the Catholic converts were given guns by the French; the nonCatholics were not. What does this tell you about early First Nations Converts? What Would You Do In Their Shoes? Other Religious Orders • While the Jesuits focused on conversion, other missionaries were instrumental in establishing hospitals, schools, and orphanages. – The Ursuline Nuns, who arrived in 1639, managed the first European schools and hospitals in Nouvelle-France. – In 1645, Jeanne Mance, a missionary, established HotelDieu (meaning "hostel of God"), the first French hospital in Montreal. • Tithes, or taxes, were collected from the colonists by the Church to help support their many religious and social ventures. • With the help of the Church, the colonists were generally better cared for than the citizens back home in France. The Seigneurial System • Established in Nouvelle-France in 1627 under the direction of Cardinal Richelieu, the method of land ownership in NouvelleFrance was known as the seigneurial system. • Technically, all the land was controlled by the king, but he distributed large grants of land in North America to some soldiers, merchants, and nobility, as well as to the Church for its mission settlements. • The seigneurial system relied on having one person, a lord or seigneur, rent out the land to censitaires, or habitants ("habitants" refers to French immigrants who lived and farmed the seigneur's land). • The seigneur was expected to build a manor house, be present on the land for much of the year, and build a gristmill. • The habitant was expected to pay tithes (taxes) to support the Church, as well as annual fees for the land, for having his grain ground at the seigneur's gristmill, and for fishing and hunting rights. The Fur Trade • It has often been said that a rodent, not people, built Nouvelle-France. • What exactly is meant by that? In short, it was the fur trade that established the economic viability of Nouvelle-France. • In Europe, hats made from beaver pelts were in great demand. • The source of the best beaver skins was the forests of North America, from the First Nations hunters who trapped them and the First Nations women who prepared the skins for market. • It was Europe's increasing demand for beaver furs that brought the French not only farther into North America, but also into trading relationships with more First Nations. • The demand for fur altered the course of history for everyone involved. Let’s Think…. • If there had not been a fashion demand for beaver pelts in Europe, how do you think this would have affected colonization efforts in Nouvelle-France? Les Coureurs de Bois • In the last half of the seventeenth century, beaver became scarce along the St. Lawrence lowlands. • In order to fill the demand for furs, French traders began to travel farther north in search of new sources of beaver pelts. • Large numbers of young men left their settlements to go live and trade with First Nations in northern areas. • These young, adventurous men became known as coureurs de bois, or "runners of the woods." • They spent hunting seasons living among the First Nations and developed an understanding of and appreciation for First Nations cultures. • Many came to prefer life among First Nations people to life in the settlements, where they were under the watchful eyes of French officials and priests. • The carefree lifestyle of the coureurs de bois did not put them in good favour with the missionaries and government officials. • While the Jesuits were trying to create settlements filled with men who would behave like European farmers, the coureurs de bois went against everything they taught. British-French Hostilities • While Nouvelle-France struggled to grow into a sustainable colony, other forces were at work that directed its future. • During the eighteenth century, Britain and France began to intensify their fight for land and power in North America The Treaty of Utrecht • Between 1701 and 1713, Britain and France were engaged in the War of the Spanish Succession in Europe, but hostilities between the two empires erupted in North America as well. • In 1713, the signing of the Treaty of Utrecht—which ended both the War of the Spanish Succession in Europe as well as fighting between the British and French on the East Coast of North America—drastically changed the balance of power and size of territory for Nouvelle-France. • Under the Treaty of Utrecht, France surrendered possession to almost all of Newfoundland (except some fishing rights), Hudson Bay, and Acadia to Britain. The Expulsion of the Acadians • Acadia was named in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazano. • The first successful French settlement in Acadia was established at Port Royal (present-day Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia) in 1605. The settlement was largely composed of French colonists. • Although Acadia was part of the French empire, it was not part of Nouvelle-France. • These early immigrants became known as Acadians. The Effect in Acadia • By the early eighteenth century, the Acadians were caught between the French and British Empires. • After the Treaty of Utrecht, the French community of Acadia was handed over to the British. • Overnight, Acadians were asked to switch their allegiance from the French to the British. • The Acadians took an oath of allegiance that recognized the British as the new official rulers of Acadia, but that guaranteed Acadians would not be called to service in times of war against France. Loyalty • In 1754, Charles Lawrence was named the governor of Nova Scotia. • Lawrence did not like the idea of the Acadians being neutral so demanded the Acadians take another oath of loyalty, but this time without the condition that allowed them to refuse to take up arms against the French. • When the Acadians refused, he ordered, on reasons of "military expediency," the mass expulsion of all Acadians from Nova Scotia in 1755. • The homes and crops of the Acadians were destroyed, and the land was later occupied by the British. The Ethics of Expulsion 1. What questions could you ask to explore the ethical dimensions of Lawrence's decision to expel the Acadians? 2. Picture it, Winnipeg, 2025. You are in your late 20s, you have completed post secondary education, you are beginning your career, you own a car, and a home; some of you are even starting a family. There is a shortage of fresh water in the USA. The USA invades Manitoba for the purpose of securing our freshwater resources. You are asked to swear allegiance to the USA or face expulsion. What do you do??? • Discuss with you table partner and be prepared to share with the class From Acadian To Cajun • Over a period of seven years from 1755 to 1762, approximately 8000 of the 10 000 Acadians were dispersed throughout the Thirteen Colonies (controlled by Britain) to the south. • Some Acadians managed to escape and found freedom in other French communities as far away as Louisiana. • The Acadians in the south became known as "Cajuns," and they continue to form a sizable portion of Louisiana's population. Final Battles For Control: The Seven Years War (1756-1763) • • • • • • • • • By the mid-1750s, Britain and France had once again become engaged in a fight for supremacy in the Seven Years' War. Once war was declared, France's attention was focused on winning the war in Europe. Britain, however, began to concentrate on winning the war in North America. The main area of contention was the region just south of the Great Lakes, known as the Ohio Valley. The French believed that this area was part of their domain because French explorer Rene-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, had mapped the region. The French had constructed a series ofiorts and placed lead plaques bearing the French coat-of-arms throughout the region. The British colonists, however, whose population was expanding in the Thirteen Colonies, hoped to develop land in the valley. People such as George Washington, who later became the first president of the United States of America, had claimed land in this region. The British began building their own forts in the Ohio Valley. The British Take the Upper Hand • When the Seven Years' War in Europe broke out, the French troops in North America relied heavily on supplies shipped from France • The British, on the other hand, could supply their troops from supplies in North America and used their naval superiority to block French supply lines. • By 1758, most of the Ohio Valley was in British hands. • Later that year, the fortress of Louisbourg (a large French fortress in present-day Nova Scotia) was taken over by the British, meaning they could attack the heart of Nouvelle-France through the St. Lawrence, as well as from the south. British Conquest of Quebec • General James Wolfe sailed from England in 1759 with orders to conquer all of Nouvelle-France. • With him he brought almost 180 ships carrying 15 000 soldiers, as well as surgeons, ministers, wives, and children. • Wolfe first set his sights on the town of Quebec. British troops began bombarding the town on July 12, 1759, and continued to attack for nine weeks. • British troops and artillery fire destroyed homes, churches, and businesses. • Wolfe also ordered farms and livestock to be destroyed in and around the town for about 240 km. • As this constant barrage on Quebec took place, Wolfe planned for the final attack against French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, the Marquis de Montcalm. The Battle of the Plains of Abraham • The final attack came in the early hours of September 13, 1759. • Wolfe's men were stationed below the 50m cliffs outside Quebec. • In the dark, the British soldiers scaled the cliffs and positioned themselves in a field known today as the Plains of Abraham. • General Montcalm had most of the French troops stationed at Beauport (now a suburb of Quebec City). • When Montcalm got word that the British were outside Quebec's walls, he had to march his soldiers back into town. • They arrived exhausted for their battle with British forces. • By the next morning, both generals were dead and France had lost Quebec City. The Articles of Capitulation • British troops then battled their way toward Montreal. Knowing that three contingents of British forces were converging on the city, Governor Vaudreuil admitted defeat and, on September 8, 1760, signed the Articles of Capitulation. • His signature surrendered Nouvelle- France to General Jeffrey Amherst and the British. • France gave its French colony little support during the British attack. • Many people of Nouvelle-France felt that France had abandoned them. The Treaty of Paris • In 1763, the Seven Years' War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. • Nouvelle-France was now officially in the hands of the British, except for 2 small islands off Newfoundland, St. Pierre and Miquelon. • Spain gained the French colony of Louisiana and, in exchange, Britain added Florida to its colonial possessions. The Impact on First Nations • For First Nations peoples, the Treaty of Paris resulted in a major shift in their relationship with the European colonies. • During the century and a half that the French and the British had been battling for control of North America, each First Nation made decisions to form alliances or remain neutral, depending on what it believed was in its best interest. • With the British in control, First Nations lost their strategic bargaining position. • As well, European newcomers were now encroaching farther and farther into their lands. • As European explorers travelled to North America, and as the British and French fought for supremacy on the continent, their biggest impact was not on the land, but on the Indigenous peoples—the First Nations. The Impact of Contact • The arrival of Europeans to North America forever changed the history of First Nations peoples in Canada. • While trade at times was beneficial for First Nations, it also came with the challenging, long-term effects of disease and dependence. Cooperation and Conflict • Early European colonists learned survival skills from First Nations people and often traded goods and technologies with them. • In general, the trade that developed benefited both sides: – First Nations—made canoes and snowshoes helped the Europeans – European-made muskets, awls, fishhooks, axes, metal hatchets, and knife blades helped First Nations people. – Furs and moccasins were just as useful to the Europeans as cotton clothing, woolen blankets, and cloth of various types and colors were useful to First Nations people. – Metal pots and kettles were more convenient cooking utensils than traditional wooden containers, just as maize, wild rice, and later pemmican were invaluable food resources for the Europeans. It’s Not All Good • However, the Europeans and First Nations people also became entangled in one another's conflicts. • The quest for furs pushed First Nations to infringe on one another's traditional hunting grounds. • First Nations and their European allies needed each other's support during times of war. With your table partner: Take the historical perspective of a First Nations community member during the early years of the fur trade. What benefits would the fur trade bring to your community? What problems? Be prepared to report back to the class. Disease • One of the most devastating aspects of European contact with First Nations was disease. • Europeans brought with them various diseases such as smallpox and influenza, which had been in European countries for hundreds of years. • For First Nations people, however, it would be their first exposure to such diseases, and their bodies had no natural immunity toward them. • One of the first epidemics occurred among the Wendat (Huron) after the arrival of the Jesuits, who unknowingly spread diseases among the First Nations population. • The Wendat loss of life was enormous. – By the end of the 1630s, more than half the Wendat population had died from disease and from wars with the Haudenosaunee nations over the fur trade. The Impact on Culture • In many First Nations, the sharp decline in population due to disease and war resulted in a loss of cultural knowledge. • Many of the people who died from diseases were Elders, the Knowledge Keepers of a community. • Losing these members sometimes meant a loss of vital ties to culture and community. Dependence and Division • The demands of the fur trade brought about serious challenges for First Nations. • Despite the many benefits of the fur trade, many First Nations people suffered from their involvement. • For example, along with useful pots and hatchets, the Europeans also traded alcohol, especially brandy and rum. – Unaccustomed to the powerful drinks, some communities experienced social problems related to addiction. • As such problems grew, some First Nations people wanted to stay away from the Europeans and the fur trade. • Others did not want to give up their supply of European goods. • Some communities experienced internal conflicts that traditional resolution techniques were not able to resolve. The Fur Trade • Although the fur trade was, at first, largely fair and mutually beneficial for both First Nations people and European traders, over time, the terms of trade began to favour the Europeans. • As the European traders competed with one another, they began to demand more from their First Nations partners and gave less in exchange. • Many First Nations' cultures adapted to the introduction of European goods, which replaced some items community members had once made themselves. • As hunters spent more time trapping and trading furs, they spent less time doing the traditional tasks needed for their community's survival. • Some communities became dependent on the fur trade posts for supplies, especially during the winter. Lets Think… 1. Explain how the rivalry between the British and the French for control of the fur trade helped cause rivalry between First Nations 2. What mutual benefits for First Nations people and Europeans were consequences of the fur trade?