StAIR - Allyson Rae Dewar

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
TLW (The Learner Will):
Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the British
and Continental armies.
 Explain George Washington’s role in the war.
 Identify the roles of women and African Americans
during the Revolutionary War.


The Americans and the British both expected
the war to end quickly. Instead, it took eight
years! During that time, the Continental Army
suffered great hardships. People’s lives
changed.
Merchants, farmers, and craftworkers left their
families to join the army.
 Women kept farms and businesses running.
 Some colonists joined the army as cooks and
servants.
 Some colonists raised money, sewed clothes for
soldiers, and nursed the wounded.



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In 1776, Great Britain
had the most powerful
army in the world.
One reason they were
powerful is because
they had the money to
hire German
mercenaries.
A mercenary is a soldier
paid to fight for another
country.

The British did have
some disadvantages.
The war was not
popular in Great
Britain.
 Many people in Britain
didn’t want to pay
taxes needed to fight
the war.
 It was slow and costly
to fight a war across the
Atlantic Ocean
thousands of miles
away.


A mercenary is a person forced against their will
to fight against their own country.
TRUE
FALSE

The British had a very powerful
army. One reason was because they
had the money to hire German
mercenaries. A mercenary is a soldier
paid to fight for another county.

WEAKNESSES
The colonies entered the war without an army or
navy unlike the British.
 Getting men to serve and to stay was a huge
problem.
 Many quit because they often went without pay,
food, uniforms, and weapons.


STRENGTHS
The Continental soldiers were defending their
homes, which gave them the will to keep on fighting.
 Unlike the British who were new to the colonies, the
Americans knew the land.


Which choice wasn’t a STRENGTH for the
Patriots?
State of the art weapons.
The Continental soldiers were defending their homes.
The Americans knew the land.

STRENGTHS OF THE PATRIOTS:
The Continental soldiers were defending their
homes, which gave them the will to keep on fighting.
 Unlike the British who were new to the colonies, the
Americans knew the land.



Another advantage the Patriots had was the
strong leadership of George Washington.
During the French and Indian War,
Washington had been commander of the
Virginia militia.

While in the Virginia Militia, Washington saw
how the British operated.


He learned soldiers from the colonies were paid less
to fight for the British than soldiers in the regular
British army.
During the French and Indian War, the British
lowered Colonel Washington’s rank because they
did not want colonists to rise above captain.

Think about a time you were treated unfairly.
How might Britain’s treatment of Washington
during the French and Indian War have
affected his choice to join the Patriots?
Washington disliked the French and the Indians.
Washington experienced firsthand the unjust treatment of
colonists by the British.

While in the Virginia Militia, Washington saw
how the British operated.


He learned soldiers from the colonies were paid less
to fight for the British than soldiers in the regular
British army.
During the French and Indian War, the British
lowered Colonel Washington’s rank because they
did not want colonists to rise above captain.

Many women supported their
husbands in battles and some
even fought when their
husbands were killed or
wounded.




Mary Ludwig Hays-Carried water for the
soldiers. (Molly Pitcher)
Margaret Corbin- Took over her dead
husband’s cannon and fought the British until
she was wounded.
Deborah Sampson-Disguised herself as a man
and fought soldiers.
Ester DeBerdt Reed-Formed a committee to go
door to door asking women to contribute
money for the soldiers.

Molly Pitcher…
Was George Washington’s wife
Carried water for the soldiers
Was a spy for the British




Mary Ludwig Hays-Carried water for the
soldiers. (Molly Pitcher)
Margaret Corbin- Took over her dead
husbands cannon and fought the British until
she was wounded.
Deborah Sampson-Disguised herself as a man
and fought soldiers.
Ester DeBerdt Reed-Formed a committee to go
door to door asking women to contribute
money for the soldiers.


At first, African Americans were not allowed to
join the army because many feared that
enslaved African Americans might rebel if
given guns.
In 1776, Washington allowed slaves to fight.
Britain had won the support of many enslaved
people by promising them freedom.


Washington was very clever when it came to
spying on the British.
Haym Salomon- A spy that spoke several
different languages including German. He
spoke with the German soldiers, urging them
to leave the British army.

Haym Salomon…
Was a spy who urged German soldiers to leave the British
army
Was a slave who fought for the British army


Washington was very clever when it came to
spying on the British.
Haym Salomon- A spy that spoke several
different languages including German. He
spoke with the German soldiers, urging them
to leave the British army.

TLW:
 Analyze the battles of Trenton,
Princeton, Philadelphia, Saratoga, and
Fort Vincennes.
 Examine the hardships suffered at
Valley Forge.
 Identify the effects on the Patriots of
victories, defeats, songs, and traitors.

The war went badly for the Patriots in 1776.
That winter, Washington and his small army
stood between the British and Philadelphia.
Food and ammunition were in short supply. “I
think the game is pretty near up,” the tired
commander wrote.




British General William Howe ordered his
troops into winter quarters in Trenton,
Princeton, and other New Jersey towns.
Washington knew that the British wouldn’t
fight until spring.
He planned a surprise attack!
At night on Christmas December 25, 1776,
Washington and his troops crossed the
Delaware River into New Jersey.
The next morning, they surprised the British
and took more than 900 prisoners.




A week later, British troops advanced toward
Trenton to retake it. However, during the
night of January 2, 1777, Washington’s troops
silently marched past British forces.
The next morning, they took Princeton.
Washington now had control of almost all of
New Jersey.
He began to rebuild his army.

Think back to times you used ingenuity
(creative problem solving). Which is an
example of Washington’s ingenuity.
Washington began to build his army in Morristown
Washington was hopeful for the future
Washington knew the British wouldn’t fight until spring
so he planned a surprise attack.
British General William Howe ordered his troops into
winter quarters in Trenton, Princeton, and other New
Jersey towns. Washington knew that the British
wouldn’t fight until spring.
He planned a surprise attack!
At night on Christmas December 25, 1776,
Washington and his troops crossed the Delaware
River into New Jersey.
The next morning, they surprised the British and took
more than 900 prisoners.
A week later, British troops advanced
toward Trenton to retake it. However,
during the night of January 2, 1777,
Washington’s troops silently marched past
British forces.
The next morning, they took Princeton.
Washington now had control of almost all
of New Jersey.
He began to rebuild his army.


Howe wanted to take
the Patriots capital,
Philadelphia.
In a surprise move,
the British army
swung around the
Continental army and
attacked from behind.


The Patriots had to
retreat.
The British took
Philadelphia on
September 26.


The British planned to cut off
New England and New York
from the rest of the colonies.
British general John Burgoyne
decided the best way was to
capture the Hudson River
Valley.






The American Forces were
ready.
Cannons were placed on a high
cliff overlooking the road to
Albany.
Local farmers with excellent
shooting skills volunteered.
Burgoyne reached Saratoga,
New York on September 19,
1777 and was greatly
outnumbered.
Burgoyne surrendered on
October 17, 1777.
France was convinced to openly
support the Americans by
signing the Treaty of Alliance.

Why was the victory at Saratoga a turning
point for the Patriots?
It showed that American forces could defeat a large British
force
It convinced France to support the Americans by signing
the Treaty of Alliance
Both above choices

Think about the strengths/advantages of the
British army!!!




After the British took Philadelphia, Washington moved his troops to
winter camp near Valley Forge.
Things were not good
 Supplies were low
 At least 2,500 soldiers died of disease
 Many soldiers left and went home
 Martha Washington had to nurse the sick
 1/3 soldiers didn’t have shoes
In February 1778, Friedrich von Steuben, a German soldier, arrived at
Valley Forge to help train the ragged Continental troops.
Under his command, the army became very powerful.


In 1778, George Rogers Clark of the
Continental army captured several forts from
the British including Fort Vincennes.
For the most part, the few ships in the
American navy had little effect but they were
tough ships with tough crews that didn’t
surrender!

Describe the condition of the Continental army
at Valley Forge.
Sick, lacking clothing and supplies, hardly any food
Strong, plenty of supplies, well-fed

Things were not good
Supplies were low
 At least 2,500 soldiers died of disease
 Many soldiers left and went home
 Martha Washington had to nurse the sick
 1/3 soldiers didn’t have shoes


TLW:
Analyze the causes and effects of the Battle of
Yorktown.
 Summarize the results of the Treaty of Paris.
 Discuss the effect of the Patriot victory over the
Loyalists.


In 1779, Spain joined the war on the Patriots’
side. Spanish Louisiana governor, Bernardo de
Galvez, opened up the port of New Orleans to
American ships and ended trade with Britain.




In 1780, British forces landed near Charles
Town, South Carolina.
They slowly closed in on the city, trapping the
5, 500 Patriot defenders.
Almost the entire Southern army was lost.
By spring of 1781, British commander Charles
Cornwallis said he was “tired” of chasing
Patriot General Nathanael Green and his men.




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Cornwallis asked servant James
Armistead to spy on the
Americans. Little did he know,
Armistead was already spying
for them.
Armistead told the Patriots
about Cornwallis’s plans and
gave Cornwallis false
information.
Washington was able to trick
Cornwallis into thinking he was
going to attack New York.
Instead, more than 17, 000
American and French soldiers
surrounded York town. French
warships blocked the harbor.
Cornwallis surrendered to
Washington and the French on
October 19, 1781.

In the case of James Armistead, how is being a
“traitor” a good thing?
It proves that all people should be sneaky
Sometimes you have to do what it takes for a cause
you believe in





Cornwallis asked servant James Armistead to spy on the Americans.
Little did he know, Armistead was already spying for them.
Armistead told the Patriots about Cornwallis’s plans and gave
Cornwallis false information.
Washington was able to trick Cornwallis into thinking he was going
to attack New York.
Instead, more than 17, 000 American and French soldiers surrounded
York Town. French warships blocked the harbor.
Cornwallis surrendered to Washington and the French on October 19,
1781.



Although the war
dragged on for more
than two more years,
the Battle of Yorktown
was the last major battle
of the war.
The British people did
not support the war
anymore.
In 1782, the British
government began
peace talks with the
Americans.





The Treaty of Paris was
signed on September 3, 1783.
It recognized the
independence of the United
States.
The land west of the
Appalachians became part of
the United States.
Florida, which had come
under control of the British,
was returned to Spain.
After the war, nearly 100,000
Loyalists fled the United
States for Canada and
Europe.

What do you think were the goals of France
and Spain in deciding to help the Patriots?
England was a common enemy
They had territory in North America and probably
wanted more
They could look to the Americans if they needed
help
All of the above



England was an enemy of not only the Patriots
but also of Spain and France.
Spain and France had territory in North
America and probably wanted more.
If someone helps another out, usually the favor
will be returned.
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