Plain Sailing

Introduction to Ships and
3 September 2014
Olena Bokareva
Facts about Shipping
• The world’s oceans cover approximately 70 % of the
Earth’s surface
• Shipping has always been closely related to economic
activity and trade
• Around 90% of world trade continues to be sea borne
• Shipping is considered as the most international of all
• The world fleet is registered collectively in over 150
states and manned by over a million seafarers
• Shipping is the most fuel-efficient and carbon-friendly
form of commercial transport
Freight Market
• Dry cargo market, the tanker market, the reefer market and the
passenger market
• Bulk cargo (dry or liquid) usually requires the whole space of the
vessel (usually raw materials)
• General cargo can be packed in pallets, boxes and further groups
into a container and thus turning the container into the standard
unit load
• Carriage of goods in the general cargo trades is almost completely
• The world fleet reached 1,63 billion deadweight tons in January
• World container port throughout is 601,8 million 20-foot equivalent
units in 2012
Tramp v. Liner Shipping
• Liner shipping operates like a bus service on a
regular basis, the schedules and ports of call are
published well in advance and the prices are
fixed. The cargo carried on such a vessel may
belong to thousands of shippers and bound for
numerous destinations
• In tramp shipping a vessel usually carries cargo
that belongs to one or several shippers and calls
at a port where it can obtain suitable cargo. It is
common that in tramp shipping the cargo can be
resold many times (e.g.oil cargoes)
Industries related to shipping
Classification Societies
Ports and Terminals
Ship Management
• a vessel propelled by engines or sails for navigati
ng on the water, esp a large vessel that cannot be
carried aboard another, as distinguished from a
Ships’ sizes (container ships)
Aframax(Average Freight Rate Assessment)
medium-sized oil tankers with a dead weight tonnage (DWT)
between 80,000 and 119,999
Capesize very large and ultra large cargo vessels with a capacity over 150,000
DWT. They are categorised under VLCC,ULCC and can be as large as 400,000
DWT or even more. They serve regions with largest deepwater terminals in
the world and are primarily used for transporting coal and iron ore. They are
suitable to serve only a small number of ports with deepwater terminals.
Chinamax ships are very large bulk carrier which can't be longer than 360m, wider
than 65 m and her draft can't be more than 24 m. The deadweight tonnage of these
vessels is 380,000–400,000 DWT. These ships are often used to move cargo to and
from China along several trade routes, such as the iron ore route from Brazil to China.
Handymax are small-sized cargo ships with a size less
than 60,000 DWT. They form the majority of ocean
going cargo vessels in the world.
Handysize are small-sized ships with a capacity ranging between 15,000 and
35,000 DWT. These vessels make up the majority of ocean cargo vessels in the
world. They are mainly used in transporting finished petroleum products and
for bulk cargo.
Malaccamax ships are the largest ships that can pass through the Strait off
Malacca which is 25 m (82 ft) deep. A Malaccamax vessel can have a
maximum length of 400 m (1,312ft), beam of 59 m (193.5 ft), and draught of
14.5 m (47.5 ft).
Panamax and New Panamax ships
• They strictly follow the size regulations set by the Panama
Canal Authority, as the entry and exit points of the Canal are
narrow. A Panamax vessel can't be longer than 294,13 m,
wider than 32,31 m and her draught can't be more than 12,04
m. An average capacity is 65,000 DWT, primarily used in
transporting coal, crude oil and petroleum products.
• The New Panamax has been created as a result of the
expanding plans for Panama Canal locks. Expanded locks will
be around 427 m (1400 ft) long, 55 m (180 ft) wide and 18,30
m (60 ft) deep so Panama Canal will be able to handle larger
vessels .
Panama Canal
Suezmax are mid-sized cargo vessels with a capacity ranging
between 120,000 to 200,000 DWT. They are designed to pass
through the majority of the ports in the world.
• VLCC (Very Large Crude Carriers) - 180,000 to
320,000 DWT. VLCCs are used extensively around
the North Sea, Mediterranean and West Africa.
• ULCC or Ultra Large Crude Carriers are the largest
shipping vessels in the world with a size more than
320,000 DWT. ULCCs are used for long-haul oil crude
transportation from Middle East to Europe, Asia, and
North America.
Draught determines the minimum depth of
water a ship or boat can safely navigate
Type of Ships
 General cargo ships
 Container ships
 Bulk carriers
 Dry bulk (coal, ore and grain)
 Liquid bulk
Crude oil carriers
Liquid petroleum ships
Chemical carriers
Liquid natural gas
 Cruise ships
 Ferries
 Offshore ships
General cargo ship
Passenger ship
Passenger/car ferries
Vessel Identification
Name:Aurora Af Helsingborg
Technical Data
Vessel type:Ro-ro/passenger
ShipGross tonnage:10,918 tons
Summer DWT:2,547 tons
Length:110 m
Beam:28 m
Draught:5.5 m
Additional Information
 Home port:Helsingborg
 Class society:Lloyd´s Shipping Register
 Build year:1992
 Builder (*):Vard Langsten
Tomrefjord, Norway
 Owner:Stena Line Oresund
Helsingborg, Sweden
 Manager:Stena Line Oresund
Helsingborg, Sweden
Crude oil tanker
Product tanker
Chemical tanker
Bulk carrier
Container ship
Automobile carrier
Offshore supply ships
Ships of the future
Tianjin Shipyard China
Ports and Terminals
World shipping routes
Ship terminology
DWT – deadweight tonnage
GT – gross tonnage
NT – net tonnage
TEU – twenty feet equivalent unit (cargo
• Hull – the body of the ship
• Hold – space for stowage of cargo inside the ship
• Hatch – opening in the deck for passage of cargo
in and out from the hold
• A ship is measured in tons for its displacement, light
weight and its dead weight tonnage
• Displacement – weight of the ship when floating at its
maximum allowable draught, and is equal to the
weight of the water displaced by the under water
volume of the hull
• Light weight – the weight of the ship including
machinery, equipment, outfitings, water in the boilers
• Dead weight – the carrying capacity of the ship
including weight of cargo, fuel, lubricants, freshwater
in tanks, stores, passengers, baggage and the crew
• Displacement = light weight + dead weight
• Freeboard – height of the freeboard deck at ship’s side
amidships above the water. The minimum freeboard is
measured from the normal summer load line
• Load line (Plimsoll line) - a marking on a ship’s side
showing the limit of legal submersion when loaded
with cargo under various sea conditions. named after
Samuel Plimsoll (1824–98), the English politician
whose agitation in the 1870s resulted in the Merchant
Shipping Act of 1876, ending the practice of sending to
sea overloaded and heavily insured old ships, from
which the owners profited if they sank.
Plimsoll Mark
Ballast water
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