Malt in bakery & bagels

Malted ingredients
in the bakery
What is malt?
Malt is germinated (sprouted) grain
Usually barley or wheat, but other grains also malted – Rye, Oats, etc
Grain produces high levels of enzymes
Some convert the starch in the grain into sugars.
Malt’s primary use is in brewing – the sugars are fermented by yeast to
produce alcohol.
The enzymes and the sugars in malt are very useful in baking………
The malting process
Grain is steeped in water to kick-start the biological process of
Grain begins to sprout and is then allowed to grow for several days.
Once the correct degree of modification has been achieved, the
malt is kiln dried to stabilise it for long term storage.
Sometimes a roasting process is utilised instead of kilning which can
produce very intense flavours and colours.
What is malt?
Malt in baking……
‘Diastatic Malt’ is one of the earliest
bread improvers and is still used by
millers and bakers to improve loaf
volume, crust colour and flavour in
various bakery applications.
‘Diastatic’ is a term that is used to describe
enzyme activity.
The primary enzyme responsible for improving
bread quality is alpha amylase although a
whole range of other enzymes relevant to
bread making are also found in malt.
Ye Olde
Diastatic Malts
During fermentation and baking
Alpha-amylase attacks damaged starch in the dough, converting exposed starch
into sticky sugars (dextrins.)
Some starch damage is produced during the flour milling process and the rest
occurs by gelatinisation during baking.
Other enzymes breakdown dextrins into simple sugars, some are converted into
CO₂ during fermentation - loaf volume increase.
Some remaining sugars react with proteins to produce Maillard reactions or
caramelise during baking - Increase in crust colour and bread flavour.
Addition of
0.3% Diastatic
active malt
flour on left
Bagel examples
Active Flour @ 0.25%
Active Flour @ 0.50%
Active Flour @ 0.75%
Benefits of Edme enzyme active flours:
Increased crust colour and shine
Crust – smoother and consistent compared to pitted, wrinkly appearance
Increased dough extensibility, improved dough handling
Improved flavour profile
Bagel examples
SF1 @ 0.25%
SF1 @ 0.50%
SF1 @ 0.75%
Crumb structure:
• Increase in active flour :
• More even cell structure
• Finer crumb
• Softer texture
• Extensibility & handling
• Dough relaxing
Benefit also applicable
in many other bakery
Uneven colour
No shine
Even coloured
Consistent deeper colour
Smooth surface
Bagel examples
SF1 @ 0.25%
SF1 @ 0.50%
SF1 @ 0.75%
SF1 @ 0.25%
SF1 @ 0.50%
SF1 @ 0.75%
Diastatic Malts cont…
Diastatic malts also contain other useful baking enzymes.
Proteolytic activity:
Used to increase dough extensibility and reduce shrinkage in pressed doughs
such as pizza and others by modifying the gluten network.
Amylase from Malt is more heat resistant
than fungal amylase and recipe additions
must be carefully controlled. Additions of
<0.3% on flour weight are typical.
Alpha-amylase activity continues to produce
dextrins during baking and can create
stickiness if used in excess.
The sticky texture of the classic British malt
loaf is produced by using high levels of
diastatic malt flour – up to 15% on flour
Non-diastatic Malts
Malts for colour, flavour and texture
Malt is kilned to stabilise it for
Low temperature drying
preserves the enzymes created
during germination
Higher temperatures reduce the
enzyme activity and create
colour and flavour by Maillard
reactions and caramelisation.
Malted Ingredients provide flavour and colour to bread, cakes and other baked
goods. Colours are described using a brewing method (European Brewing
Colours range from cream (30°EBC) up to almost black (1500°EBC).
Addition rates are from 1% to 5% depending on the product and intensity of
flavour required.
Non-diastatic Malts
Malts for colour, flavour and texture
Malted grains used for the textural enhancement of
baked products and are typically used in conjunction
with powdered malts for background flavour.
A classic malted brown bread recipe might include
malted wheat flakes and a medium coloured malt
flour at 17% and 2% respectively on flour weight.
As well as being derived
from whole grains and high
in fibre, malt is also
naturally high in
antioxidants – a typical
malted brown bread can
contain more antioxidants
than standard white and
wholemeal bread.
Malt extracts
Malt extracts
Made by combining milled malt with water and gently heating to
accelerate enzyme activity in a process called ‘mashing’.
Process converts most of the starch into a sugary solution or ‘wort’. This is
then concentrated by evaporation into a viscous syrup - malt extract.
Liquid malt extracts are very sweet but not too easy to handle - viscosity.
Spray Dried and Band Dried Powders
Liquid extracts are also dried to a powder using spray or band dryers
They are equally as sweet and easier to handle
Dried extracts are hygroscopic - stored away from moisture and humidity.
Like other malt, liquid and dry malt extracts can be diastatic and non.