Colombia - Peace and Conflict Studies

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Colombia’s Conflict Key Players Mapping
LIBERAL
PARTY
ECUADOR
MILITARY
FORCES
CONSERVATIVE
PARTY
VENEZUELA
COLOMBIAN
GOVERNMENT
GUERILLA
GROUPS
•SEVERAL
INTERNAL
GROUPS
• DRUG
CARTELS
• MEDELLIN
• CALI
•FARC
•ELN
•AUC
PARAMILITARY
ARMIES
PARAMILITARY
GROUPS
USA
support
DRUG
CARTELS
Civilians
Politicians
Foreigners
Victims
Tense diplomatic relations
War against drugs
Violent attacks
Profiteers from drug trafficking
Mutual influence
FARC: Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia
ELN: National Liberation Army
UAC: United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia
Structural and Attitudinal Factors
Structural
Land Inequality
Social Agrarian
Reform Law
FARC platform
Weak State
Failed to provide human
security, basic services
Failed rule of law
Human rights issues
Violence
Forced land
displacement
Shared security
factors
Governance/Social
Capital
Social Divide
Intergroup
Relations
Guerillas & Drug Cartel
Violence
Forced Land Displacement
Kidnappings
Civil wars
Social Inequality
Poverty: Rural areas 63%,
vs Urban areas 39%
3.9 mil IDPs
Democratic Security
Reform
Local Town Hall Meetings
Kidnappings
Developing trust
Military HR abuses
Community partnership
Social Inequality
Weak Social
Structure
Poverty
Rural 63% vs Urban 39%
3.9 mil IDPs
Poverty/Inequality
Power struggle between
political parties
Transactional Factors During Peace Talks
1998 – 2000
Pastrana
•Ceased fire
•Demilitarized zones prior to
peace talks
•Safe Haven given to FARC
2001-2002
Uribe
2004-2010
Uribe
2012-present
Santos
• Government stops
peace talks
• Uribe’s local security
working groups
•Demilitarization of AUC
•Government and AUC begin
peace talks
•Peace talks with ELN in Cuba
• Santos initiates secret
meetings with FARC leaders
• Peace talks begin in Cuba
• FARC declares 2 month cease
fire
Columbia’s Current Peace Process
FARC & Government
Negotiators
Land reform
USA
NORWAY
CUBA
End of armed
conflict
VENEZUELA
OBSERVERS
Agenda
Key Areas
Guarantees of
political opposition
GUARANTORS OF THE
PEACE PROCESS
Supporters of Colombia’s
Peace Talks
Rights of Victims of
the conflict
Drug trafficking
Colombia’s Peace Talks Timeline
Pastrana’s Peace
Initiatives
•1998 – President Andres
Pastrana Arango begins
peace talks with guerrillas.
•1998 - Pastrana grants
FARC a safe haven the size
of Switzerland to help
move peace talks along.
•1999- President Pastrana
demilitarizes vast zone to
facilitate peace talks
•2000 - Pastrana's "Plan
Colombia" wins almost $1
billion in mainly military
aid from the US to fight
drug-trafficking
•2001-FARC accused of
using safe haven to rearm,
prepare attacks and
conduct drug trade.
•2002- Peace process
breaks down
Alvaro Uribe’s
Democratic
Security
•2003 - Fighters from rightwing AUC begin to disarm.
•2004 -AUC and government
begin peace talks.
•2005 - 15-day dispute with
Venezuela over the capture
of a FARC leader on
Venezuelan soil.
•2005 - Exploratory peace
talks with ELN, begin in
Cuba.
•2008 March - A Colombian
cross-border strike into
Ecuador kills senior FARC
rebel Raul Reyes and sparks
a diplomatic crisis with both
Ecuador and Venezuela
•2008 July - Colombian army
rescues the country's
highest-profile hostage,
Ingrid Betancourt, held in
captivity for six years by
FARC
President Santos’
Peace Talks
•2011 May - Senate approves
law to compensate victims
of civil conflict and return
land to millions of displaced
people.
•2012 August - President
Santos says exploratory talks
are under way with the
FARC guerrillas, and that the
ELN armed group has also
indicated a readiness to talk.
•2012 October – President
Santos apologizes to
indigenous leaders in
Amazon region for 1912-29
killings.
•2012 October Colombia and
FARC negotiators launched
Norway peace talks
•2012 November Peace talks
start in Havana, Cuba
•2013 October- 15th round of
talks opened in Havana, Cuba.
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