Chapter 5 powerpoint

advertisement

Sociolinguistics Chapter 5 National Languages and Language Planning

Learning Objectives

 National and official languages  Planning for a national official language  The linguist’s role in language planning

National Language

A national language is the language of a political, cultural and social unit. It is used to identify the nation and unite the people of the nation. Example 1 Guaran í in Paraguay Exercise 1

Official Language

An official language is simply a language which may be used for government business. Its function is primarily characterised by usefulness rather than symbolic sense.

Example 2 Bislama in Vanuatu

Official status and minority languages

English often shares official status with an indigenous language: Malay in Malaysia Swahili in Tanzania Example 3

What price a national language?

Many countries regarded the development of a single national language as a way of symbolising the unity of a nation.

Planning for a National Official Language

 Selection  Codification  Elaboration  Acceptance

Language Planning in Different Countries

 Lingua franca as a national official language e.g. Tanzania Exercise 4  A “H” and a new standard form based on “Ls” as two competing official languages e.g. Norway Exercise 7  Several national languages and official languages e.g. India

The linguist’s role in language planning

 Codification of orthography  Developing vocabulary  Acceptance  Acquisition planning Exercise 9

Language Planning in Hong Kong

 Historical and political development  Economic development  The impact of historical, political, and economic development on the language situation in Hong Kong  Ordinances on official languages in Hong Kong  Definition problems  The national language  Language policy

Historical and Political Development

1840-1842 First Opium War 1856-1858 Second Opium War 1898 The New Territories and the outlying islands were leased to Britain for 99 years 1997 China resumed sovereignty in Hong Kong

1841

Economic Development

Fishing port 1945-1950s Entrepôt 1960s-1970s Manufacturing hub 1980s-present International financial centre

NyLonKong

Impact on the language situation

The existence of English alongside Chinese, even after China resumed sovereignty in Hong Kong

Ordinances on official languages

1. The Official Languages Ordinance (1974) 2. The Official Languages Ordinance amendment (1987) 3. The Basic Law (1997)

The Official Languages Ordinance (1974)

The official languages possess equal status and, subject to the provisions of this Ordinance, enjoy equality of use for the purposes of communication between the Government or any public officer and members of the public and for court proceedings.

(Chapter 5, Section 3)

The Basic Law (1997)

In addition to the Chinese language, English may also be used as an official by the executive authorities, legislature and judiciary of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

(Chapter 1 Article 9)

Definition problems

The variant(s) of spoken and written Chinese are not defined in the legal documents.

Chinese in Hong Kong

Modern Standard Chinese Written Modern Standard Chinese Cantonese Written Cantonese Putonghua Spoken Cantonese

Modern Standard Chinese

Putonghua PU-TONG 普通 common HUA 話 language

The National Language

The concept of ‘national language’ was vague to Hong Kong people during the colonial period.

In the post-colonial period, the Hong Kong government starts to promote the national language – Putonghua.

Language Policy

Official Languages Chinese English Putonghua Cantonese English

Biliteracy

All children studying at local government aided schools learn both Chinese and English from Primary 1 for 12 years through the end of senior secondary education.

Trilingualism

Proportion of the population able to speak English as another language

Year

1991 1996 2001 2006 2011

Percentage

29.4% 34.9% 39.8% 41.9% 42.6% Source: Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Government

Trilingualism

Proportion of the population able to speak Putonghua as another language

Year

1991 1996 2001 2006 2011

Percentage

16.9% 24.2% 33.3% 39.2% 46.5% Source: Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Government

Download