Unit2-B

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N H C E
Unit 2 Section B
The Standard for Olympic
Excellence
AIR FORCE UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING
FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING AND RESEARCH PRESS
The Standard for Olympic Excellence
Reading Skills
Text B
Test Yourself
课文
自测
Reading Skills
Introduction
Like the other skills for your use, the skill
introduced in this unit does render you
better able in reading.
Practice
This practice is designed to help you
get a deeper insight into the skill for
this unit.
课文
Introduction
自测
Finding Out Word Meanings
Many times we can figure out the meaning
of an unfamiliar word from clues provided by
context and our common sense as well. The
context clues that might be helpful for us to
recognize the meaning of a new word include:
definition, examples, synonyms, antonyms,
word stems and affixes.
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课文
Introduction
自测
Back
Finding Out Word Meanings
1. Some sentences give the definition for a
difficult word with the help of punctuation such
as commas, dashes or parentheses.
2. Context sometimes gives examples to
illustrate a difficult word rather than define it.
We can use the examples to figure out the
meaning of an unfamiliar word.
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课文
Introduction
自测
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Finding Out Word Meanings
3. Synonyms (同义词) are words or phrases
that are similar in meaning. A synonym is one
type of context clue that helps you determine the
meanings of unfamiliar words.
4. Antonym (反义词) clues. Antonyms are
words or phrases that have opposite meanings to
other words or phrases. Antonym clues can help
you understand new words.
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课文
Introduction
自测
Back
Finding Out Word Meanings
5. Sentences before or after a sentence that has
a difficult word sometimes explain the meaning
of the word.
6. Sometimes we can use our own experiences,
or our knowledge about a certain topic, to find
out the meaning of an unfamiliar word.
7. Word part clues. We can often figure out an
unfamiliar word because we know the prefix or
suffix attached to the root word, or the two
words that make up a compound word.
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课文
Introduction
自测
Back
Context clue: We can often figure out an
unfamiliar word if we know the prefix or suffix
attached to the root word.
Example: Missing the Olympic Team the
previous year had made me pause and reflect on
what I had gainednot the least of which was a
quiet, indissoluble bond with a short man in a
tropical shirt. (Para. 18, Passage A).
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课文
Introduction
自测
How to find out the meaning of the word
“indissoluble”?
Explanation: We can find out the meaning of
the new word indissoluble, because we know
that this adjective is formed by adding the
suffix “ble” and prefix “in” to the verb
“dissolve”.
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课文
Introduction
自测
Back
Context clue: Sentences before or after a
sentence containing a difficult word sometimes
explain the meaning of the word.
Example: The nations of Eastern Europe ... are
considered the most polluted of all the world’s
industrialized countries. Heavy metals from coal
mining have contaminated much of the area’s
waters. Rivers, land, and forests are so
contaminated that many are now biologically
dead.
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课文
Introduction
自测
How to find out the meaning of the word
“contaminate”?
Explanation: The sentences before and after
the sentence which contains contaminated
both help us to find out the meaning of the
word, that is, “polluted” or “made dirty”.
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课文
Introduction
自测
Back
Context clue: Sentences before or after a
sentence containing a difficult word sometimes
explain the meaning of the word.
Example: Ghana’s population has been growing
by 3.2 percent a year. This explosive growth has
led to removal of forests in much of the country,
and excessive use of existing farmland.
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课文
Introduction
自测
How to find out the meaning of the expression
“this explosive growth”?
Explanation: The first sentence says: Ghana’s
population has been growing by 3.2 percent a
year. This clearly explains that “this explosive
growth” in the second sentence means “rapid
growth”.
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课文
Introduction
自测
Back
Context clue: Sometimes we can use our own
experiences, or our own knowledge about a
certain topic to find out the meaning of an
unfamiliar word.
Example: Indonesians have traditionally
favored large families, and their major religion,
Islam, frowns on birth control.
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课文
Introduction
自测
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How to find out the meaning of the phrase
“frown on”?
Explanation: According to our knowledge about
Islam (and what is said in the first part of the
sentence), we know that frown on most probably
means “does not approve of”.
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课文
Introduction
自测
Context clue: We can often figure out an
unfamiliar word if we know the prefix or suffix
attached to the root word.
Example: Observers say the program has
succeeded in strengthening the country’s
agricultural base and bringing a new source
of wealth to villagers.
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课文
Introduction
自测
How to find out the meaning of the expression
“observer”?
Explanation: This noun is formed by adding
the suffix -er to the already familiar verb
observe, so we can find out the meaning of
the word: “someone who observes”.
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课文
Practice
自测
Directions:
Figure out the meaning of the underlined
words and expressions by using the reading
skill. Choose the answer that is the closest in
meaning.
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课文
Practice
自测
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1. The Olympics remains the most pure example
of competition for the sake of competition itself.
Athletes sacrifice their careers and bodies
risking injury, defeat and complete failure to
compete for nothing more than honor for their
country and themselves.
A. Administrators
B. People earning money
C. Businessmen
D. Sportsmen
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课文
Practice
自测
2. Lewis won nine gold medals in four different
events and held world records in the 100meter dash and the long jump.
A. a short race
B. a distance
C. a long call
D. a length
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课文
Practice
自测
3. His years of practice and quiet selfconfidence set the stage for a phenomenal
Olympic track and field career.
A. unusual
B. interesting
C. devoted
D. temporary
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课文
Practice
自测
4. Johnson was stripped of his gold medal and
sent packing by the International Olympic
Committee when his post-race drug test
indicated steroid use.
A. before the race
B. during the race
C. after the race
D. in the race
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课文
Practice
自测
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5. Lewis firmly denied the charges and countered
by proving before a judge that the magazine
that had published the stories did so without
foundation to their claims.
A. agreed with
B. refused to accept
C. condemned
D. differed from
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技巧
Text B
1
New Words
2
Questions Previewing
3
Passage Reading
4
Choice Making
自测
技巧
New Words
自测
competition
n.
[U] 竞争
sake
athlete
sacrifice
injury
exploit
n.
n.
vt.
n.
vt.
[U] 为了···目的或好处
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[C] 运动员
牺牲; 奉献
[C, U] 伤害; 损害
利用; 剥削
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技巧
New Words
自测
glory
virtue
determination
dash
competitive
defy
stopwatch
pursue
n.
n.
n.
n. / vi.
a.
vt.
n.
vt.
strip
n. / vt. [C] 条; 带 / 剥去; 除去
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[U] 光荣; 荣誉
[C] 美德
决心; 毅力
[sing., C]1. 短跑 2. 奔 / 奔
1. 好胜的 2. 有竞争力的
1. 向···挑战 2. 不服从
[C] 秒表
1. 追求; 从事 2. 追赶
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New Words
singular
phenomenon
a.
n.
a.
n.
n.
n.
n. / v.
phenomenal
horizon
sprinter
observer
crack
trail
自测
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1. 卓越的 2. 单数的
[C] 1.奇才; 奇迹 2. 现象
异常的; 惊人的
1. 范围; 视野 2. 地平线
[C] 短跑运动员
[C] 1. 观看者 2. 观察员
[C] 爆裂声 / 发出爆裂声
vi./vt. 拖沓地走 / 跟踪; 尾随
a. / n. 迅猛的;易爆的 / 爆炸物
explosive
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技巧
New Words
overcome
committee
indicate
steroid
conquest
condemn
condemnation
vt.
n.
vt.
n.
n.
vt.
n.
战胜; 击败
opponent
n.
对手; 敌手
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[C] 委员会
表明;显示
[C] 类固醇
[U] 攻占; 占领; 征服
谴责
[C, U] 谴责
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技巧
New Words
自测
deny
counter
rumor
formula
suspicion
erosion
participation
sprint
vt.
v.
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
vi.
1. 否认 2. 拒绝 (给予)
relay
n.
[C] 接力赛
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反驳
[U] 谣言, 传闻
[C]1.方案; 公式 2. 方程式
[C,U] 1. 猜疑 2. 疑心
[U] 侵蚀; 腐蚀
[U] 参与, 参加
冲刺
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技巧
New Words
n.
reception
amazing
a.
act as
above all
not hear of it
set one’s mind on
set the stage for
focus on
be used to (doing) sth.
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1.接待;欢迎 2.[C]招待会
令人惊异的
作为
最重要的是
不听; 拒绝听取
决心做某事 (或得到某物)
为···做好准备
1. 聚焦于 2.集中 (精力)于
习惯于
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技巧
New Words
hold one’s breath
屏住呼吸
strip sb. of sth.
剥夺
charge sb. with sth.
指控; 控诉
Carl Lewis
卡尔 · 刘易斯
Ben Johnson
本 · 约翰逊
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自测
Back
Questions Previewing
技巧
自测
Back
Directions: For you to be better conditioned for
reading as fast as 100 words per minute, as
required in the new type of examination “Fast
Reading”, Text B can serve to be your fastreading material. But, for this purpose, the best
course of action is to know what to scan for in
your skimming. Thus, the trick is to keep in your
mind the key words of each question before you
start off. That is where the “Question
Previewing” comes in.
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Questions Previewing
技巧
自测
1. According to the writer, what are the athletes
mainly competing for at the Olympics?
2. According to the text, why do some Olympic
athletes use drugs?
3. What does the writer think of those athletes
exploiting drugs?
4. Why is it said that we can see the Olympic
spirit in Carl Lewis?
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Questions Previewing
技巧
自测
Back
5. The sentence “Lewis defied not only the
stopwatch but also the march of time” (Para. 2)
means that ______________________________.
6. Which of the following statements is true
concerning young Carl Lewis?
7. What was the style of Carl Lewis in running?
8. What can we learn from the first sentence of
Paragraph 5?
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Chinese
Question 1
技巧
自测
Back
The Standard for Olympic Excellence
Para. 1a The Olympics remains the most pure
example of competition for the sake of
competition itself. Athletes sacrifice their careers
and bodies risking injury, defeat and complete
failure to compete for nothing more than honor
for their country and themselves. To achieve such
honor, one must both perform at his or her
event’s highest level and act as a role model on
the world’s biggest stage.
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Question 2
Question 3
技巧
自测
Back
Para. 1b And so, while it must be admitted
that performance-enhancing drugs are
exploited to offer advantage to some Olympic
athletes, those who do so never receive the
only true reward the Olympics has to offer:
honor. And, they never experience the glory of
winning through the virtues of hard work and
determination.
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技巧
Question 4
自测
Back
Para. 2a The greatest track and field Olympian
of all time, Carl Lewis, exemplified the
Olympic spirit. He did so, not simply through
his gold medal performances—Lewis won nine
gold medals in four different events and held
world records in the 100-meter dash and the
long jump—but also through his competitive
nature and his ability to win and compete in
every Olympics from 1984 to 1996;
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Question 4
Question 5
技巧
自测
Para. 2b he would have also competed in 1980
if the United States had not refused to take
part. With speed, consistency, integrity and
above all desire, Lewis defied not only the
stopwatch but also the march of time. He
demanded nothing less than the best from
himself and achieved the best, not with drugs,
but with unmatched discipline and
commitment to training.
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技巧
Chinese
自测
Back
Para. 3a Surprisingly, young Carl Lewis was
encouraged to pursue music lessons rather than
track by his parents. But, he would not hear of
it, and stuck a strip of tape on the
ground to mark the distance for
the world record and began to
jump toward it with singular
determination.
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技巧
Question 6
自测
Para. 3b His father commented, “Some kids
want to be a fireman one day, a movie star
the next. Carl set his mind on track and that
was it. He said he wanted to be the best,
period.” His years of practice and quiet selfconfidence set the stage for a phenomenal
Olympic track and field career.
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技巧
Chinese
自测
Back
Para. 4a In 1985, however, a
cloud appeared on Carl
Lewis’ horizons: Canadian
sprinter Ben Johnson, who
began to beat Lewis consistently in the 100-meter
dash. Lewis arrived at the 1988 Olympic Games
in Seoul confident, but even observers who knew
very little about the race expected Johnson would
win.
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Question 7
自测
Back
Para. 4b The world watched and waited
anxiously to find out who was “the fastest man
on Earth”. All of the cameras focused on Lewis
and Johnson as the runners took their marks in
the final heat. The crack of the starter’s pistol
sounded and the racers burst from the line. The
crowd was used to Lewis trailing for the first
half of the race—he just had a different style—
and then finishing strong with his long stride to
win.
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Chinese
自测
Back
Para. 4c So, they held their breath as they
watched Johnson build an early lead with his
explosive start wondering if Lewis’ strong finish
would be enough to overcome him. As the
runners approached the finish line, Lewis was
gaining fast, but alas, his personal best time of
9.92 seconds was not enough to beat Johnson
who ran a world record time of 9.79 seconds.
Johnson was called “the fastest human being
ever”, and Lewis, it appeared, would be
competing for second place in future races.
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Chinese
自测
Back
Para. 4d Two days later, however, Johnson was
stripped of his gold medal and sent packing by
the International Olympic Committee when his
post-race drug test indicated steroid use. The
gold medal was given to Lewis instead, yet
many did not see his conquest as a real victory,
and he became swept up in the apparent
blanket condemnation of the sport.
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Chinese
自测
Back
Para. 4e Worse, a former opponent charged
Lewis with steroid use. Lewis firmly denied the
charges and countered by proving before a
judge that the magazine that had published the
stories did so without foundation to their claims.
He also participated in drug test after drug test
to prove he was clean. An opponent of steroid
use, Lewis was never linked to drug use by
anything but rumor.
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技巧
Question 8
自测
Back
Para. 5 It would take the formula of Lewis’
further commitment to the sport and his love for
competition to lift some of the suspicion from
track events and stop the erosion of support that
the Olympics began to suffer after Seoul. With
his continued hard work and honest
participation in sprinting and the long jump, he
proved to the world that the Olympic spirit was
not dead. And in 1992, Lewis competed in his
third Olympics winning two more gold medals in
the long jump and 4×100 meter relay with a
reception from the public that was fit for a king.
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Chinese
自测
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Para. 6 The amazing Carl Lewis
had demonstrated that he was
unlike any athlete who had ever
lived, not by simply winning, but
by winning honestly, loving to
compete and working the hardest
for the longest time. His love for
the games truly set a new
standard for Olympic excellence.
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Choice Making
技巧
自测
Back
Refer to Para. 1
1. According to the writer, what are the
athletes mainly competing for at the
Olympics?
A. For a large amount of money.
B. For gold medals.
C. For themselves.
D. For honor for themselves and their
nations.
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技巧
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Back
Refer to Para. 1
2. According to the text, why do some Olympic
athletes use drugs?
A. Because they want to ease their anxiety
and stress from the competition.
B. Because they wish to perform at a higher
level.
C. Because they are encouraged to do so.
D. Because they are convinced the use of
drugs keeps them healthy.
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Choice Making
技巧
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Back
Refer to Para. 1
3. What does the writer think of those athletes
exploiting drugs?
A. The athletes have the right to choose
whether to use drugs or not.
B. They are worth admiring as long as they
can win.
C. They are not worthy of the honor, even if
they win.
D. It is unwise of them to use drugs, because
it is not good for their health.
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Choice Making
技巧
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Back
Refer to Para. 2
4. Why is it said that we can see the Olympic
spirit in Carl Lewis?
A. Because he won nine gold medals at the
Olympics.
B. Because he had a passion for competition.
C. Because he was able to continue competing
for a long period.
D. All of the above.
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Choice Making
技巧
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Back
Refer to Para. 2
5. The sentence “Lewis defied not only the
stopwatch but also the march of time” (Para.
2) means that ________________.
A. Lewis ran extremely fast
B. the stopwatch stopped working when
Lewis began to run
C. Lewis ran so fast that even the stopwatch
couldn’t measure his speed
D. Lewis thought the stopwatch didn’t work
well
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技巧
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Back
Refer to Para. 3
6. Which of the following statements is true
concerning young Carl Lewis?
A. Young Carl Lewis had a strong ability for
music.
B. His parents encouraged him to run track
instead of playing music.
C. Young Carl Lewis set his mind on track
and never changed his idea.
D. Just like other boys, young Carl Lewis
had many ideas about his future.
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Back
Refer to Para. 4
7. What was the style of Carl Lewis in running?
A. He trailed behind for the first half of the
race, then he sped up and won.
B. He built an early lead with his explosive
start, then he kept the lead.
C. He built an early lead with his explosive
start, then he slowed down until it was
time for a strong finish.
D. He ran at a steady speed all the time.
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Back
Refer to Para. 5
8. What can we learn from the first sentence of
Paragraph 5?
A. People never refuse to give their support
for the Olympic games.
B. People are suspicious about the honesty of
some Olympic athletes after the Seoul
Olympic games.
C. It seems that nothing could be done to
remove people’s suspicion of track and field.
D. Carl Lewis had tried his best and could do
nothing more to win back people’s support
for the Olympic games.
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技巧
课文
Test Yourself
Listening Comprehension
In this section, you will hear three short passages. At the
end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the
passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After
you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from
the four choices marked A), B), C) and D).
Reading in Depth
In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are
required to select one word for each blank from a list of
choices given in a word bank above the passage. Read the
passage through carefully before making your choices.
Script
Passage 1
技巧
课文
Back
Questions 1 to 3 are based on the passage you are going to hear.
1.
In which of the following places have
snakes never been found?
A) In green forests.
B) In dry deserts.
C) In the Pacific Ocean.
D) In the North Pole region.
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Script
Passage 1
2.
技巧
课文
Why do we find the largest number of
snakes in hot regions?
A) Snakes like to stay in the sun.
B) Snakes like warmth.
C) Snakes are used to extra-hot weather.
D) Snakes are good swimmers.
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Script
Passage 1
3.
技巧
课文
How smart are snakes compared with
other animals?
A) They are very intelligent.
B) They are fairly intelligent.
C) They are not very intelligent.
D) They are unintelligent.
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Script
Passage 2
技巧
课文
Back
Questions 4 to 6 are based on the passage you are going to hear.
4.
What was John doing when he saw the
young woman?
A) He was shopping.
B) He was watching a film.
C) He was making a phone call.
D) He was talking to a policeman.
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Script
Passage 2
5.
技巧
课文
What made the woman stand out in the
crowd?
A) Her attractive manners.
B) Her unusual height.
C) Her beautiful figure.
D) Her fashionable handbag.
随
笔
阅读理解
Back
Script
Passage 2
6.
技巧
Why did the thief return?
A) He was arrested by the police.
B) He was acting in a film.
C) He had taken the woman’s bag by
mistake.
D) He was only making a joke.
随
笔
阅读理解
课文
Back
Script
Passage 3
技巧
课文
Back
Questions 7 to 10 are based on the passage you are going to hear.
7.
How much does it cost to build the
giant jet?
A) 6 million dollars.
B) 25 million dollars.
C) 70 million dollars.
D) 400 million dollars.
随
笔
阅读理解
Script
Passage 3
8.
技巧
课文
What does the giant jet look like inside?
A) An engine room.
B) A big kitchen.
C) A great theatre.
D) A high building.
随
笔
阅读理解
Back
Script
Passage 3
9.
技巧
课文
Back
How many passengers can the jet plane
hold?
A) More than 200.
B) More than 300.
C) More than 400.
D) More than 600.
随
笔
阅读理解
Script
Passage 3
10.
技巧
课文
Back
What will happen if the human pilots can
not fly the plane?
A) Two mechanical pilots will do the job.
B) The giant jet will crash.
C) The giant jet will be forced to land.
D) The engines of the giant jet will stop
working.
随
笔
阅读理解
技巧
课文
Back
means amateur largely
increasingly appropriately
huge revived represent qualifications demonstrate
route inspired exception achievement professional
Sport is one of the world’s largest industries,
and most athletes are professionals who are paid
for their efforts. Because an athlete succeeds by
[1] ___________,
achievement only—not by economic
background or family connections—sports can
随
笔
听力理解
技巧
课文
Back
means amateur largely
increasingly appropriately
huge revived represent qualifications demonstrate
route inspired exception achievement professional
be [2] route
_____ to wealth, and many athletes play
only for money than for love. This has not
always been true. In the ancient Olympics the
winner got only a wreath of olive leaves (橄榄叶
花环). Even though the winners became
national heroes, the games remained [3] amateur
_______
for centuries.
随
笔
听力理解
技巧
课文
Back
means amateur largely
increasingly appropriately
huge revived represent qualifications demonstrate
route inspired exception achievement professional
Athletes won fame, but no money. As time
passed, however, the contests became [4]
increasingly less amateur and cities began to
__________
hire athletes to [5] ________
represent them. By the fourth
century AD, the Olympics were ruined, and they
were soon ended. In 1896, the Olympic games
were [6] revived
______ with the same goal of pure
amateur competition.
随
笔
听力理解
技巧
课文
Back
means amateur largely
increasingly appropriately
huge revived represent qualifications demonstrate
route inspired exception achievement professional
The rules bar athletes who have ever received
a $50 prize or athletic scholars who have spent
four weeks in a training camp. At least one
competitor in the 1896 games met these [7]
____________.
qualifications
随
笔
听力理解
技巧
课文
Back
means amateur largely
increasingly appropriately
huge revived represent qualifications demonstrate
route inspired exception achievement professional
He was Spiridon Loues, a water carrier who won
the marathon race. After race, a rich Athenian
offered him anything he wanted. A true amateur,
Loues accepted only a cart and a horse. Then he
gave up running forever. But Loues was an [8]
exception
________ and now, as the Chairman of the
German Olympic Committee said, “Nobody pays
any attention to these rules.”
随
笔
听力理解
技巧
课文
Back
means amateur largely
increasingly appropriately
huge revived represent qualifications demonstrate
route inspired exception achievement professional
Many countries pay their athletes to train yearround, and Olympic athletes are eager to sell
their names to companies that make everything
from ski equipment to fast food.
Even the games themselves have become a [9]
huge
____ business. Countries fight to hold the
Olympics not only for honor, but for money.
随
笔
听力理解
技巧
课文
Back
means amateur largely
increasingly appropriately
huge revived represent qualifications demonstrate
route inspired exception achievement professional
The 1972 games in Munich cost the Germans
545 million dollars, but by selling medal symbols,
TV rights, food, drink, hotel rooms, and
souvenirs (纪念品), they managed to make a
profit. [10] Appropriately
____________, the symbol of victory
in the Olympic games is no longer a simple olive
wreath—it is a gold medal.
随
笔
听力理解
技巧
自测
奥林匹克的卓越标准
Para. 1a 奥林匹克运动会依然是一个为竞争而
竞争的最纯粹的例子。运动员们在事业和身体
上作出牺牲,他们冒着受伤、受挫和彻底失败
的危险,仅仅为了国家和自身的荣誉而竞争。
为了获得这样的荣誉,运动员必须发挥在自己
的项目上的最佳水平,在世界最大的竞技舞台
上发挥模范作用。
返回
技巧
自测
Para. 1b 虽然必须承认,有的运动员利用兴
奋剂来提升自己的表现,从而取得优势,但
他们从未获得过奥运会所能给予的唯一真正
的奖赏,那就是荣誉。而且他们也从未体验
过通过刻苦训练与决心这些美德而获胜所带
来的光荣感。
返回
技巧
自测
Para. 2a 迄今为止,卡尔 · 刘易斯是奥运会田径
项目最伟大的选手,也是奥运精神的典范。这不
仅是因为他屡屡获得金牌——刘易斯在四个项目
的比赛中获得过九枚金牌,在 100 米短跑和跳远
比赛中保持世界记录——而且是因为他天性中所
富有的竞争力和从 1984 年到 1996 年间在每一届
奥运会上所表现出的竞争和获胜的能力。
返回
技巧
自测
Para. 2b 如果不是美国拒绝出席 1980 年奥运会,
他也会参加那一年的奥运竞赛。凭着速度、稳
定的发挥、诚实,尤其是获胜的渴望,刘易斯
的表现非秒表所能计量,甚至使时间也停滞不
前。他要求自己发挥出最佳水平,而且他取得
最好成绩靠的不是服用药物,而是无与伦比的
自制力和训练时的完全投入。
返回
技巧
自测
Para. 3a 令人惊讶的是,卡尔 · 刘易斯的父母
在他年幼时鼓励他去上音乐课,而不是去参加
田径训练。但是他不愿去,而是把一条胶带粘
在地上,以此标出跳远世界记录的距离,然后
以非凡的决心开始向着目标练习跳远。
返回
技巧
自测
Para. 3b 他的父亲评价道:“有些孩子今天想着
以后当消防员,明天又梦想成为电影明星。卡尔
决心练习田径, 后来始终没有改变。他说他想成
为最好的,就这些。” 他多年的训练和从容的
自信为他以后卓越的田径生涯打好了基础。
返回
技巧
自测
Para. 4a 然而在 1985 年,卡尔 · 刘易斯的运
动生涯蒙上了一片阴影:加拿大短跑运动员
本·约翰逊在 100 米短跑中频频击败刘易斯。
虽然 1988 年刘易斯参加汉城(现称首尔)奥
运会时满怀信心,但就算对径赛知之甚少的旁
观者们也都认为约翰逊会获胜。
返回
技巧
自测
Para. 4b 全世界都急切地观望着,等待着,想知
道谁是 “世界上跑得最快的人” 。当选手们在
最后一轮比赛中站在起跑线上时,所有照相机的
镜头都对准了刘易斯和约翰逊。发令枪 “啪”
地一声响过之后,运动员从起跑线上冲了出去。
人们习惯于看到刘易斯在赛程的前一半落在后
面——他就是这种与众不同的风格——最后来个
大跨步的奋力冲刺。
返回
技巧
自测
Para. 4c 因此,当他们看到约翰逊凭着起跑时
的爆发力领先时都屏住了呼吸,不知道刘易斯
最后的冲刺是否能够击败对手。当他们逼近终
点线的时候,刘易斯奋力加速,但是,可惜的
是,刘易斯 9.92 秒的个人最好成绩不敌约翰逊
9.79 秒的世界记录。约翰逊被称为 “历史上跑
得最快的人” ,而刘易斯看来在以后的比赛中
只能争夺第二名了。
返回
技巧
自测
Para. 4d 但两天以后,约翰逊因赛后的药检
结果显示其服用了类固醇而被取消了金牌,
并被国际奥委会遣送回国。金牌被转而授予
刘易斯,可很多人并不认为他获得了真正的
胜利,而他也被席卷进对田径赛的一片指责
声中。
返回
技巧
自测
Para. 4e 更糟糕的是,刘易斯以前的一个对手
指控他也服用了类固醇。刘易斯对此坚决予以
否认,并在法官面前证明杂志刊登这样的消息
是毫无根据的行为,以此作为反击。他一次次
地参加药检以证明自身的清白。刘易斯反对在
比赛中服用类固醇。除了在谣言中,他从未和
使用药物的丑闻联系在一起过。
返回
技巧
自测
Para. 5 凭着对运动的持续奉献和对竞技的热爱,
刘易斯消除了人们对径赛项目的一些疑虑,阻止
了汉城奥运会后民众对奥运会支持下降的颓势。
他以自己的不断努力和对短跑与跳远的诚实参与
向世界证明,奥林匹克精神并未消亡。1992 年,
刘易斯第三次参加奥运会,并在跳远和4×100
米接力赛中获得两枚金牌。他在公众中所受到的
欢迎不亚于一位国王受到的礼遇。
返回
技巧
自测
Para. 6 令人惊叹的卡尔 · 刘易斯已经证明自
己不同于历史上任何一位运动员。这并不是
因为他能获胜,而是因为他能诚实地获胜,
他热爱竞争,他能在最长的时间里做出最大
的努力。他对体育竞技的热爱真正为奥林匹
克的卓越设立了新的标准。
返回
短 语
N
H
C
E
for the sake of: for the purpose / benefit of
为了······目的/好处
举例 1
技巧
自测
Back
随
笔
I usually check my room from time to time,
为了安全起见,我通常不时地检查房间。
just for safety’s sake.
举例 2
The ideal student is considered to be one
理想的学生,被认为是那种为学问而积极学习,
who is motivated (激发) to learn for the sake
而不是对得高分感兴趣的人。
of learning, not the one interested only in
getting high grades.
单词
N
H
C
E
sacrifice: vt. to give up sth., esp. for a good
purpose or belief 牺牲;奉献
举例 1
技巧
自测
Many
young
people
sacrificed
their
valuable
为了当地人的幸福和安宁,许多年轻人献出了他
lives
for the safety and happiness of local
们宝贵的生命。
citizens.
Back
举例 2
随
笔
She sacrificed her career to marry that rich
她为了嫁给那位富翁而牺牲了自己的事业。
man.
短 语
N
H
C
E
技巧
nothing more than: only 仅仅
举例 1
他们的斗争只是为了自己的政治权利和良好的工
They
struggled for nothing more than their
作条件。 rights and better working condition.
political
自测
Back
随
笔
举例 2
It一些学生学习只是为了获取文凭,这肯定是错误
is definitely wrong that some students
的。 hard for nothing more than diplomas.
work
短 语
N
H
C
E
perform at one’s event’s highest level: to give
full play to one’s talents; be at one’s best 发挥
最佳水平
举例 1
技巧
自测
Back
随
笔
At the Olympic competitions, you have
在奥运会的竞赛中,只要你发挥了自己最好的水
already won as long as you have performed
平,你就已经胜利了。
at your event’s highest level.
举例 2
During
the football match yesterday all the
在昨天的足球比赛中队员们都发挥他们的最佳水
players
performed at their event’s highest
平,赢得了全场球迷的赞扬。
level, thus winning the praises of all the
football fans.
短 语
act as: to have the role or function of 作为
N
H
C
E
技巧
自测
举例 1
Many
schools hope that the parents will act
许多学校希望家长能够成为他们孩子日常的行为
as
daily role models for their children.
榜样。
举例 2
Back
随
笔
I was honored to act as the interpreter for
我很荣幸地担任了北京举行的国际会议的翻译。
the international conference held in Beijing.
单词
N
H
C
E
virtue: n. a good quality in character or
behavior 美德
举例 1
技巧
Diligence and bravery are the traditional
勤劳和勇敢是中华民族的传统美德。
virtues of our Chinese nation.
自测
举例 2
Back
随
笔
The
manager spoke highly of such virtues
经理高度赞扬了他员工特有的忠诚、勇敢和诚实
peculiar
to his employees as loyalty, courage
的优秀品德。
and truthfulness.
To be continued
搭配
N
H
C
E
by / through virtue of 借助于,由于
cultivate virtue 培养道德/积德/败坏道德
举例
技巧
自测
Back
随
笔
Besides instruction of knowledge, schools
除了传授知识,学校还应该培养学生求真、正直、
should cultivate students in such virtues as
有责任感等优良品质。
truth, integrity, responsibility and so on.
单 词
determination: n. the strong will to do sth.
N
H
C
E
技巧
决心;毅力
举例 1
If she had more determination, she could be
如果她决心再大一点,她做任何事情都能成功。
a success at anything.
自测
Back
随
笔
举例 2
All
this
has
increased
my
determination
to
所有这一切更加增强了我竭尽全力战胜困难的决心。
try in every way to overcome the difficulties.
短 语
N
H
C
E
技巧
自测
above all: most importantly 最重要的是;尤
其是
举例 1
Most people agree that the present role of
很多人认为妇女现在的角色已经影响了美国社会,
women has already affected US society.
尤其是影响了男性的传统角色。
Above all, it has affected the traditional role
of men.
Back
举例 2
随
笔
Having
been away from home for long time,
离家很久了,他尤其是渴望见到自己的家人和朋
he
longs above all to see his family and
友。
friends again.
单词
N
H
C
E
defy: vt. 1) to do sth. that is considered
impossible; challenge 向······挑战
2) to refuse to obey sb. or sth. 违
抗;不服从
举例 1
技巧
自测
Back
随
笔
It
is
obvious
that
they
are
wrong
to
defy
the
很显然,他们藐视公众舆论是错误的。
public opinion.
举例 2
After
years of research, he has established his
经过多年的研究,他建立了自己的理论并开始向
own
theory and begins to defy the authorities
该领域的权威发起挑战。
in the field.
单词
N
H
C
E
pursue: vt. 1) to continue trying to achieve
sth. over a long period of time 从事;追求 2)
chase sb. or sth. in order to catch them 追逐
举例 1
技巧
自测
While some people tend to pursue only
一些人只追求生活中享乐,而另外一些人在努力
pleasure in their life, others work hard to
追求知识充实自己。
pursue knowledge to enrich them.
Back
举例 2
随
笔
After
obtaining his
master degree, he
获得硕士学位后,
他决定继续攻读博士学位。
decided to pursue his studies for doctoral
degree.
To be continued
搭配
N
H
C
E
pursue one’s goal 追求目标
in pursuit of 追求
in hot pursuit 穷追不舍
技巧
自测
举例
Back
They have been traveling around the
他们到全国各地寻找那个丢失的小孩。
country in pursuit of the lost child.
随
笔
短 语
N
H
C
E
技巧
not hear of: refuse to accept a suggestion or
offer 拒绝听取;不同意
举例 1
The old man was stuck-in-the-mud, so he
这个老人很固执,所以他不听取任何人的建议。
will not hear of advice from anyone else.
自测
Back
随
笔
举例 2
I我不同意你到那个地方去旅行。
will not hear of your making a trip to that
place.
短 语
N
H
C
E
set one’s mind on: be determined to do sth.
or obtain sth. 决心做某事 (或得到某物)
举例 1
一旦他下定决心做自己想做的事情,谁也无法使
[扩展]
他改主意。
技巧
自测
Back
随
笔
make up one’s mind to do sth. 决定做某事
Once he has set his mind on what he wants
give
/
apply
one’s
mind
to
sth.
专心于某事
to do, no one could make him change.
have half
a
mind
to
do
sth.
很想做某事
举例 2
get / take one’s mind off sth. 忘记某事
那个女孩决心要当一名电影明星。
turngirl
sth.set
over
one’son
mind
反复考虑
The
herinmind
becoming
a movie
star.
To be continued
短语
N
H
C
E
技巧
自测
set the stage for: make preparations for an
event to take place 为······做好准备
举例 1
It is not wise of you to burn mid-night oil
为了准备好期末考试在考试前天天熬夜是不明智
every
day just before the exam time so as to
的。
set the stage for the final.
Back
举例 2
随
笔
扎实的知识和非凡的能力为他的未来做好了准备。
Good
commands of knowledge and singular
ability have set the stage for his prospects.
单 词
N
H
C
E
phenomenal: adj. very unusual; very great
or impressive 异常的;惊人的
举例 1
技巧
自测
Back
随
笔
By virtue of hard work, they eventually
凭着他们的艰苦工作,他们最终在自己的研究领
achieved
phenomenal
success
in
their
域取得了惊人的成功。
research work.
举例 2
During
the
past
20
years,
China’s
economy
在过去的20年间,中国经济以惊人的速度发展。
developed at phenomenal speed.
短 语
N
H
C
E
focus on: 1) to arrange the lens in an
instrument so as to obtain a clear picture of
sth. 聚焦于 2) to concentrate on sth. and pay
particular attention to it 集中(精力)于
举例 1
技巧
自测
假如孩子们知道他们的努力会得到奖励,而且他
If
kids know they're working for a reward
们能够把精力集中于挑战性的任务,他们这时往
and
can focus on a relatively challenging
往表现出最大的创造力。
task,
they show the most creativity.
Back
举例 2
随
笔
Following
a game, many parents and
比赛时,许多家长和教练只关注结果并且总是给
coaches
focus on the outcome and find fault
孩子的表现挑毛病。
with youngsters' performances.
短 语
N
H
C
E
hold one’s breath: to stop breathing for a
moment because of anxiety or excitement
屏住呼吸
[扩展]举例 1
技巧
自测
Back
随
笔
catch
one’s breath
Remember
to hold your喘气;歇气
breath when you
潜入水中时要屏住气。
take
dive one’s
into the
breath
water.
away 令人非常吃惊
举例 2breath
lose one’s
喘不过气
take breath
缓一口气,休息一下
Everyone
hold their breath
while they were
每个人都屏住呼吸,焦急地等待着比赛的最终结
out of breath
waiting
anxiously for the 气喘吁吁
final results of the
果。
competition.
To be continued
短 语
N
H
C
E
strip sb. of sth: to take property, rights,
titles, etc. away from sb. 剥夺
举例 1
Because
of his crimes, he was completely
由于他的罪行,他被剥夺了一切权利
。
stripped of his rights.
技巧
自测
举例 2
Back
随
笔
She
was abandoned by her husband and
她被丈夫遗弃,因而她的全部财产和家当也被剥
consequently
stripped
of
all
her
property
夺了。
and possessions.
短 语
N
H
C
E
技巧
自测
Back
随
笔
charge sb. with sth.: to say openly that sb.
has done sth. wrong 指控;控诉
举例 1
[搭配
]
He
was
brought
into
court
because
he
was
他被带上了法庭,因为他被指控玩忽职守。
bring
a charge
of … against
sb. 因······指控
charged
with neglecting
his duty.
charge for
要价
举例 2
in charge of
负责······
in
the
charge
of
由······管理
The police charged the driver with reckless
警察指控那司机开车莽撞。
take
charge
管理,接管
driving.
To be continued
单词
N
H
C
E
deny: vt. 1) to say that sth. is not true, or
that one does not believe sth. 否认 2) not to
allow sb. to have or do sth. 拒绝(给予)
举例 1
技巧
自测
Back
The theory does not deny that sleep provides
这个理论没有否认睡眠具有恢复健康和体力的重
要功能。
some important restorative functions.
举例 2
American women were denied the right to
随
笔
经过多年的艰苦努力,直到1920年美国妇女才获
vote until 1920 after many years of hard
得了选举权。
struggle.
单词
N
H
C
E
suspicion: n. 1) a feeling of not trusting sb.
or sth. 猜疑;不信任 2) a feeling that sb. has
done sth. wrong 怀疑;疑心
举例 1
技巧
自测
那个男孩脸色苍白,食欲不振,这引起了老师的
The boy’s pale face and lack of appetite
怀疑。
aroused the teacher’s suspicion.
Back
举例 2
随
笔
These
events
confirmed
my
strong
suspicion
这些事件验证了我对他的强烈怀疑。
about him.
短 语
N
H
C
E
set a new standard for: to establish a norm
or criterion 确立一个新标准
举例 1
技巧
His firm belief and absolute devotion set a
他坚定的信念和绝对的忠诚为如何做人设定了新
标准。
new standard for how to conduct oneself.
自测
举例 2
Back
随
笔
His excellent performance has set a new
他优异的成绩为这个项目的奥运会比赛设立了一
standard for Olympic competition in this
个新的标准。
field.
技巧
自测
返回
Passage 1
[Q1] Snakes may be found just about
everywhere except the North Pole region and
some islands in the South Pacific Ocean. Some
snakes live in warm, dry deserts. Others live
in green forests, fields and woodlands. Some
never go far from water and are fine
swimmers. Some live all their lives in the sea.
Most snakes can swim.
To be continued
技巧
自测
[Q2] Because snakes are cold-blooded and
depend on warm air for comfort and
existence, the largest number of snakes are
found in the hottest parts of the earth. Even
so, many snakes stay away from the direct
rays of the sun when possible. If extra hard
weather comes along snakes find the coolest
place possible and stay there.
To be continued
返回
技巧
自测
In places where it freezes snakes often hide
themselves far under the ground or in caves
and stay until spring. Snakes are smart
enough to stay alive. They are smart
enough to find food and kill their enemies.
[Q3] But compared with other animals,
they are believed to be below average in
intelligence.
返回
技巧
自测
Passage 2
[Q4] One day John was doing some
shopping in the market when he noticed a
beautiful young woman there. She was very
well-dressed and he watched her as she
walked around, looking at the fruit and
vegetables which were for sale.
To be continued
返回
技巧
自测
返回
[Q5] The market was very crowded, but
this woman was so graceful that she stood
out in the crowd. “She looks like a film
star”, thought John to himself. Suddenly a
thief ran through the crowd and seized the
woman’s bag and ran away. She screamed.
John ran as quickly as he could to the
nearest phone box.
To be continued
技巧
自测
He dialed 999. “Please come to the market
square at once”, he asked the police, “A
thief has run off with a lady’s bag.” John
then returned to the market to try to calm
the young woman. However, the thief had
already returned and was talking to the
young woman. [Q6] They explained to
John that they were only making a film.
返回
技巧
自测
返回
Passage 3
Have you ever traveled on any of the
giant jet aero-planes? If you have not been
a passenger on one of these planes, try to
imagine a jet which is more than seventeen
meters long and more than five stories high
at the tail. [Q7] Such a plane costs at least
twenty-five million dollars to build.
To be continued
技巧
自测
It costs at least six thousand dollars to fill
this giant with fuel. [Q8] Inside, the giant
jet looks more like a great theater than a
plane. [Q9] The jet can hold more than
four hundred passengers. Imagine that
number in one jet plane.
To be continued
返回
技巧
自测
Is there any danger that the jet’s engines
will fail? Fortunately, the planes appear to
be quite safe. On each plane there are twice
as many engines as it needs. If two engines
fail on the same side, the plane can easily
use its other engines to land. [Q10] There
are also two mechanical pilots to take
charge if the human pilots can not fly the
plane.
返回
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