Aztec, Inca, and Maya Civilizations

Inca Civilization
Essential Question
How were both European and
Native American cultures
changed after European
contact with the Inca?
SS6H1a: Describe the encounter and
consequences of the conflict between the Spanish
and the Incas and the roles of Pizarro and
1200-1500 CE
1600 CE
300-900 CE
1100-1521 CE
The Incas
 Location: South America
(Andes Mountains) –
included parts of Peru,
Ecuador, Chile, Bolivia
and Argentina
 Time Frame: 1200 CE to
1500 CE
 Main City: Cuzco (in
present day Peru)
 At one time the empire
spread 2,500 miles
 The Sun God, Inti, was a very important god to
the Incas.
 They believed Inti was their parent
 Referred to themselves as children of the sun.
Roads & Hanging
 The Inca built 19,000 miles of roads. They belonged to the
government. Permission was required to use the roads.
 Messengers: Men would be told or given a message and would
run to a “checkpoint” where they would pass the message along
to the next messenger. This was the first version of a relay.
 They also made hanging and pontoon bridges. Hanging bridges
were made from weaving the fibers of the maguey plant.
Inca Agriculture
 The Inca empire was
located in the Andes
 The Incas cut terraces into
steep sides of mountains
to create more farmland – 
this kept soil from washing
 The Incas built irrigation
systems - channels
designed to carry water
from a mountain streams.
crop – potato
Used the first
process which
made it last
for years and
was easy to
 The Inca did not have a written language
 Inca government officials recorded information on knotted
strings called quipus
 Each quipu had a main cord with several colored strings attached to it.
 Each color represented a different item
Llama, Llama
 The Incas never
invented the wheel, so
they had no wheeled
vehicles. They did not
have horses or cows.
 The llama was used
for transportation.
 It also provided the
Incas with wool and
Machu Picchu
 Inca city located at
7,970 ft altitude on a
mountain ridge in Peru
 about 44 miles
northwest of Cuzco
 Machu Picchu is the
most preserved city of
the Inca Empire.
 Explorers rediscovered
it in 1911. It is often
referred to as "The Lost
City of the Incas."
Inca Empire Weakens
 The Incan ruler, Huyayna Capac
did not chose an heir before he
died in 1525.
 His sons fought to become the
new ruler.
 After 5 years of fighting, Atahualpa
became new Inca leader.
 But, the deadly conflict weakened
the empire just as Pizarro arrived…
Pizarro Conquers the Incas
 In 1531 Pizarro set sail with a small
army of 180 Spanish soldiers for
the Incan empire in search of gold.
 Pizarro and the Inca leader,
Atahualpa agreed to meet in a
courtyard .
 The Incas believed the Spanish
might be gods, so they did not
bring weapons.
 The Spanish ambushed them and
killed over 2,000 Incas.
The Ransom
 The Spanish captured Atahualpa and put
him in prison.
 Atahualpa promised to give the Spaniards
mounds of gold (ransom) if they freed
 The Inca paid up and but Pizarro’s men
killed Atahualpa by strangulation in 1533.
The End of the Inca
 By 1535 Pizarro had
captured most of the Incan
empire and the capital
 How did this happen so
 Already weakened by civil war
 Weapons (guns and cannons)
 Diseases (smallpox, measles, and
chicken pox)
 Horses (the Native Americans
were terrified of them)
The Inca under Spanish Rule
 The Incas suffered terribly under Spanish rule
 They could no longer practice their religion – were
forced to become Catholics
Spanish official punished Incas who rebelled
Terraces and irrigation canals fell apart
8 out of 10 Incas died, killed by over-work, lack of food
and disease
The Spanish melted down most of the treasure from the
Related flashcards

Ethnic groups in Sudan

32 cards

S.H.I.E.L.D. agents

75 cards

Council of Europe

23 cards

Create Flashcards