Chapter No. 04 - information systems and it audit

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Information and Database
Chapter # 04
Information and Databases
Database
“Refers to a structured collection of electronically
stored data which is controlled, accessed through
computers based on predefined relationships
between predefined types of data items related to
a specific business situation or problem”
“Is an organized collection of records/information
that is made-up of related records.”
Chapter # 04
Information and Databases
Database Management System :
A DBMS is an
integrated set of programs used to define, update
and control databases.
File : Is a set of related records that contains the
same fields in the same order and same format.
Record :
Record is a set of fields, each of which is
related to the same thing, person or event.
Field :
Key :
A field is a group of characters that have a
predefined meaning.
A key is field that uniquely identifies which
person, thing or event the record describes.
Chapter # 04
Information and Databases
Types of Data
Pre-defined data Items
Text
Images
Audio
Video
Chapter # 04
Information and Databases
Data Modeling : The process of defining what data
is used or produced in an information system and
how that data is organized.
Entities :The specific things, database collects data
about.
Entity type :The kind of things, data is collected about
Relationship :The way specific entities of one type
might related to specific entities of the other type
Chapter # 04
Information and Databases
Entity Relation Diagram :Technique for identifying the
entity types in a situation and diagramming the
relationship between those entity types.
Type of Relationships :
•One-to-One relationship
•One to Many relationship
•Many to Many relations
Chapter # 04
Information and Databases
Relational Structure of Databases
Primary Key Filed:A column which uniquely identifies a in a table
Foreign Key: Which refer to a specific record of an other table.
Properties of Key Field : Unique, Not Null, and Indexed
Data Modeling – Entity Relation Diagram
Data Modeling – Entity Relation Diagram
Types of Databases
Relational Databses
Multi-Dimensional Databases
Data Warehouse
Geographical Information systems
Text and Image databases
Hyper Databases and Web
Web page
HTML
URL
Indexes and Search Engines
Chapter # 04
Information and Databases
Data Warehousing
Roles of DBMS
Controlling and Organizing data to increase its value
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Efficient way to organize data
Improves data Accuracy
Discouraging Data Redundancy
Flexibility
Supports Data Security (controlled access / recovery procedures)
Making Programming more efficient
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Provides consistent and centralized defining methods
Chapter # 04
Information and Databases
Range of DBMS Functions
Defining the database
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Data Definition
Data Dictionary
Methods of Accessing data in a Computer Systems
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Sequential Access
Direct Access
Indexed Sequential Access (ISAM)
Processing transactions
Controlling Distributed Databases
Backup and Recovery
Supporting Database Administration
Chapter # 04
Information and Databases
Evaluating Data as a Source (Usefulness)
Information Quality :
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Accuracy
Completeness
Timeliness
Precision
Age
Source
Information Accessibility:
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Availability
Admissibility
Information Presentation :
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Level of Summarization
Format
Information Security :
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Access Restriction
Chapter # 04
Encryption
Information and Databases
Models as Component of IS
Mental Models
Mathematical Model
What-if Questions
Virtual Reality :The Ultimate interactive Model
Chapter # 04
Information and Databases
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