Chapter 16: Citizenship and the Law - Waverly

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CIVICS IN PRACTICE
HOLT
Chapter 16
Citizenship and the Law
Section 1: Crime in the United States
Section 2: The Criminal Justice System
Section 3: Juvenile Crime
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HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
CIVICS IN PRACTICE
HOLT
Section 1: Crime in the United States
The Main Idea
When a person breaks a law, it is called a crime.
There are several types of crimes and a variety
of reasons why people commit crimes.
Reading Focus
 What are five different types of crime?
 What are four possible causes of crime?
 How do we fight crime in the United States?
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CIVICS IN PRACTICE
HOLT
Section 1: Crime in the United States
Crimes against persons:
Violent crimes—homicide, hate crimes,
aggravated assault, or forcible rape
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CIVICS IN PRACTICE
HOLT
Section 1: Crime in the United States
Crime against property:
 The majority of crimes
 Involves stealing or destroying property—
petty larceny, grand larceny, vandalism, or
arson
 Robbery involves property and persons.
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HOLT, RINEHART
AND
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CIVICS IN PRACTICE
HOLT
Section 1: Crime in the United States
Different types of crime:
 Homicide, aggravated assault, forcible rape, larceny,
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vandalism, arson, robbery
Hate crimes—violent crimes committed because of prejudice
Victimless—gambling and sale, possession, and use of illegal
drugs
White collar—committed by people in their work; stealing,
embezzlement, and fraud
Organized—a crime syndicate of career criminals; provides
illegal goods and services; uses violence as a tool
HOLT, RINEHART
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CIVICS IN PRACTICE
Hate Crimes [02:49]
HOLT
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HOLT, RINEHART
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CIVICS IN PRACTICE
HOLT
Section 1: Crime in the United States
Causes of crime:
 Poverty
 Illegal drug use
 Permissive society
 Urbanization
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CIVICS IN PRACTICE
HOLT
Section 1: Crime in the United States
Fighting crime:
 1994—National crime bill includes tougher
sentences and grants for police officers and
new jails.
 Crime prevention education is taught in some
schools.
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HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
SECTION 1
CIVICS IN PRACTICE
HOLT
Question: What are the different types of
crime?
Types of
Crime
organized
crimes
victimless
crimes
white-collar
crimes
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HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
CIVICS IN PRACTICE
HOLT
Section 2: The Criminal Justice System
The Main Idea
Police officers arrest people believed to be breaking the
law. An accused person must be tried and, if found
guilty, punished.
Reading Focus
 What is the role of police officers in the criminal
justice system?
 What is the function of the courts after a suspect has
been arrested?
 How does our corrections system punish
lawbreakers?
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CIVICS IN PRACTICE
HOLT
Section 2: The Criminal Justice System
Police Officers
 Protect life and property, prevent crime, and
arrest violators
 Protect individual rights, maintain peace, and
control traffic
 Act as peacemakers, advisers, protectors, and
community members
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CIVICS IN PRACTICE
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Section 2: The Criminal Justice System
Police Officers (continued)
 Education, background check, aptitude tests,
physical and psychological exams are required.
 Academies teach law, community relations,
gathering evidence, arrest procedures, records
keeping, first aid, weapon use, and other physical
skills.
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HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
CIVICS IN PRACTICE
HOLT
Section 2: The Criminal Justice System
After a suspect is arrested:
 Suspect is entitled to due process before questioning.
 Preliminary hearing—evidence evaluated and charges
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dropped or trial is set; bail set
Indictment—a formal charge is made
Arraignment—suspect makes a plea before a judge
Trial—defendant is presumed innocent; a judge presides and a
jury deliberates the case presented by the prosecution and the
defense
Sentencing—judge decides the punishment; some states have
mandatory sentences for certain crimes
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CIVICS IN PRACTICE
Consequences [01:14]
HOLT
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Section 2: The Criminal Justice System
Punishing lawbreakers:
 Fines
 Imprisonment (People hold different views of its
purpose: retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, or
social protection.)
 Parole (Early release based on good behavior;
overcrowding has forced paroles.)
 Capital punishment (Opponents believe it violates
the Eighth Amendment; it remains controversial.)
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CIVICS IN PRACTICE
SECTION 2
HOLT
Question:
What happens after a suspect is arrested?
Suspect is
Suspect
is booked
arrested
Trial
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Arraignment
Preliminary
hearing
Indictment
HOLT, RINEHART
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CIVICS
IN PRACTICE
Teens and Consequences
[01:44]
HOLT
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HOLT, RINEHART
AND
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CIVICS IN PRACTICE
HOLT
Section 3: Juvenile Crime
The Main Idea
Most states prefer to handle juvenile, or young,
criminals differently than adult criminals, but for
some crimes this practice is changing.
Juvenile Court [02:22]
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Reading Focus
What is juvenile crime?
What are some possible causes of juvenile crime?
How does the judicial system handle juveniles who
break the law?
What are some ways to avoid trouble with the law?
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
CIVICS IN PRACTICE
HOLT
Section 3: Juvenile Crime
Possible causes of juvenile crime:
 Poor home conditions
 Poor neighborhood conditions
 Gang membership
 Dropping out of school and unemployment
 Alcohol and drugs
 Peer pressure
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HOLT, RINEHART
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CIVICS IN PRACTICE
Juvenile Rights [03:20]
HOLT
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HOLT, RINEHART
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CIVICS IN PRACTICE
HOLT
Section 3: Juvenile Crime
The judicial system has changed the
way it handles juveniles:
 Prior to late 1800s—Juveniles at least seven
years old were tried in adult courts and sentenced
to prison or death.
 1870s—Reformers argued juveniles required
special understanding.
 Juvenile court system was set up to re-educate
offenders.
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CIVICS IN PRACTICE
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Section 3: Juvenile Crime
The judicial system has changed the
way it handles juveniles: (continued)
 Hearings determine guilt or innocence of juvenile
offenders.
 1967—Supreme Court granted juveniles the right
of due process.
 Juveniles do not have the right to a jury trial.
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HOLT, RINEHART
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IN PRACTICE
Juvenile DetentionCIVICS
Center [01:06]
HOLT
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CIVICS IN PRACTICE
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Section 3: Juvenile Crime
Juveniles charged and found guilty
 may be placed in a foster home.
 may be sent to a corrections facility
like a training school.
 may be given probation.
 may be sent to a boot camp.
Juveniles charged with felonies are often tried
in adult courts and punished accordingly.
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HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
SECTION 3
CIVICS IN PRACTICE
HOLT
Question:
What happens when juveniles are charged
and found guilty of breaking the law?
juvenile
correctional facility
probation
Juvenile
Punishment
Options
placement in a
training school
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boot camp
HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
CIVICS IN PRACTICE
HOLT
Chapter 16 Wrap-Up
1. Identify and describe specific examples of five
categories of crime.
2. What are some causes of crime?
3. What steps does a criminal suspect go through from
the time of arrest to the time of sentencing?
4. What are the punishments that a convicted criminal
faces?
5. What are the possible causes of juvenile
delinquency?
6. What may a judge do if he or she finds a juvenile
guilty of a crime?
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HOLT, RINEHART
AND
WINSTON
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