Unit 10 A Horse and Two Goats Part I Listening and Speaking Activities Part II Reading Comprehension and Language Activities Part III Extended Activities Part II Reading Comprehension and Language Activities Pre-reading Tasks Notes Comprehension work Language work ( A, B, C) Translation Pre-reading Tasks Discuss the following question. What do you think might cause misunderstanding in communication? A Horse and Two Goats At the entrance of the small Indian village of Kirtan, there stood a massive guardian in the shape of a prancing horse, with his head held high proudly, his forelegs in the air and his tail looped up with a flourish. On this particular day, an old man was drowsing in the shade of a nearby cactus and watching a pair of goats graze in this arid soil; he was disturbed by a motorist, who got out of his station wagon at the sight of the statue , and went up to the brightly-colored horse. A Horse and Two Goats “Marvelous!” He cried, pacing slowly around the statue. His face was sunburned and red. He wore a khaki-colored shirt and shorts. Noticing the old man’s presence, he said politely in English, “How do you do?” The old man, not understanding what the other meant, replied in pure Tamil, his only means of communication, “My name is Muni, and the two goats are mine and mine only.” The red-faced man glanced at the goats, took out a cigarette and asked, “Do you smoke?” A Horse and Two Goats “I never even heard of it until yesterday,” the old man replied nervously, guessing that he was being questioned about a murder in the neighborhood by this police officer from the government, as his khaki dress indicated. The red-faced man said, “I come from New York. Have you heard of America?” The old man said respectfully, “Anything may happen these days. Bad characters everywhere.” “I am sure you must know when this horse was made,” said the American tourist, and smiled ingratiatingly. The old man reacted to the relaxed atmosphere by smiling himself, and pleaded, “Please go away, sir, I know nothing. Our village has always had a clean record. Must be the other village.” A Horse and Two Goats “Please try to understand me,” the American tourist said. “I arrive three weeks ago and have traveled five thousand miles since, seeing your wonderful country.” Then he went on to explain at length, uttering each syllable carefully, what brought him to this country, how much he like it, what he did at home, how he had planned for years to visit India, the dream of his life and so forth---every now and then pausing to smile polity, the old man smiled back but said nothing, then he turned to go. The other seized his shoulder and said earnestly, “Is this statue yours? Will you sell it to me?” The old man realized that the other was referring to the horse. He thought for a second and then related in detail that the horse had been there for a very long time and that it would appear as the tenth avatar at the end of the Yuga, when the world would be destroyed, and the redeemer would come in the form of a horse to help the good and punish the evil. “And this horse will come to life then.” He continued, “And that is why this is the most sacred village in the whole world.” A Horse and Two Goats A conversation leading to mutual mystification followed, with the Indian chattering away about various avatars of God Vishnu and the American trying to drive a bargain for the purchase of the statue. “Nothing ventured, nothing gained,” the red-faced man said to himself. Turning to the old man he asked, “Will you take a hundred rupees for it?” Then he drew from his wallet a hundred rupee note. The old man now realized that some financial element was entering their talk. He peered closely at the note, the like of which he had never seen in his life. What was this man flourishing the note for? Perhaps for change. He laughed to himself at the thought of anyone’s coming to him to change a large note. With a grin, he told the man to go to the village headman for help. “If that’s not enough, I guess I could go a little higher,” the red-faced man said. A Horse and Two Goats “You‘d better talk to him yourself because he goes mad at the sight of me and my goats,” the old man said, with his eyes traveling to his goats. The American followed his look and decided it would be sound police to show an interest in the old man’s pets. He went up to them casually and stroked their backs. Suddenly it dawned on the old man that the other wan making him an offer for the goats. His dream if a lifetime was about to be realized. He had always hoped to sell them some day and with the capital to open a small shop on this very spot, he needed twenty rupees for this project. And he felt that with some bargaining he could get the money now. “It is all for you,” said the American as he placed on the old man’s palm one hundred and twenty rupees. A Horse and Two Goats The old man pointed at the station wagon. “Yes, of course,” said the other. The old man said, “This will be their first ride in a motor car. Carry them off after I get out of sight; otherwise they will never follow you but only me.” So saying, he brought his palms together in salute, turned round, and was soon out of sight. The red-faced man looked at the goats grazing peacefully and then sat down on the pedestal of the horse, as the westerly sun touched off the ancient faded colors of the statue with a fresh splendor. “He must have gone to fetch some help,” he remarked, and settled down to wait. end Notes: Flourish n. 茂盛, 兴旺, 华饰, 繁荣 v.1 挥动，挥舞 flourish flags 挥舞旗帜 2 繁荣；兴隆 a flourishing business 生意兴隆 Plants will not flourish without water. 没有水植物就不会长得茂盛。 The company has really flourished since the chief engineer joined us. "自从主任工程师到我们公司来了以后,公司真 正地兴旺起来了。" 3盛行；享盛名 Chaucer flourished at the end of the 14th century. 乔叟在14世纪末享有盛名。 The dramatist flourished around 1930. 那位剧作家于一九三零年左右处于全盛时期。 back Notes: a massive guardian: The horse was worshipped by the villagers as a protector of the village. Massive indicates that the horse statue is not only large in size, but also heavy in weight. Here is one more example: The new stadium is a massive building. back Notes: Tamil: An official language spoken in Tamil Nadu state in Indian, and also one of the languages of Sri Lanka, Singapore and several regions in the Indian Ocean and the Middle East. back Notes: Avatar: a god in Hinduism at the end of the Yuga: Yuga is any of the four ages (the Satya , the Treta , the Dvapara, and the Kali) in Hinduism. According to Hinduism, these four ages form a cycle, due to be repeated, with each worse than the last. back Notes: it dawned on sb. that:it came to one’s mind all of a sudden that …突然意识 到…… 猛然想起…… Eg. It dawned on me that he was actually trying to help me. back Notes: was soon out of sight: be out of sight: disappear Eg. He stood at the street corner, following his mother with his eyes until she was out of sight. back Notes: Ingratiatingly: adv. Respectfully, showing respect. The American tourist was trying to please the old man with a friendly humble smile. Ingratiatingly is often used disapprovingly of someone who tries to make himself liked by other people in a humble manner. Another word with similar meaning but different connotation is gratefully, which is often used in a positive way. back Comprehension work (Questions for discussion ) A Summarize the story What is the story A horse and Two Goats about? Summarize it in no more than 50 words. The story is about an encounter between an old Indian villager and an American tourist in India, neither for who understand the other’s language. As a result, the American’s intention of buying the statue of a horse is misunderstood by the Indian as an offer to buy his two goats. Comprehension work (Questions for discussion ) B Summarize the paragraphs Summarize the first half of the story from the beginning to Then, he turned to go. The American tried to strike a conversation about the statue of the horse he admired but the old man mistook him for a police officer investigating a recent murder in the neighborhood. Summarize the second half of the story. In the second half of the story, both parties tried to employ different means of communication to work out the other’s intention. But the misunderstanding continued and got worst, finally leading to a hilarious ending when the American was left alone waiting with two thin goats. II Language work B In other words Put the following expressions from the text in the blanks, change the form if necessary. Sacred plead capital ingratiating respectful relate massive disturb 1 The old castle was surrounded by _____walls. 2 I’m sorry to __________ you, but could you tell me how this machine works? 3 The girl wept and ________until her mother agreed to do as she wished. II Language work 4 Cows are ______ to many Indian people. 5 The retired editor needed a lot of ________ to start up a new newspaper. 6 The millionaire _______ to his grandchildren the story of his success. 7 The middle-aged employee always spoke to his boss in an ________manner and was looked down on by his colleagues. 8 One should be ________ when talking about other people’s religious beliefs. II Language work C Work with sentences Rewrite the following sentences using the following expressions. get out of sight react to refer to dawn on pace (v.) At the thought of make one an offer for sound policy to do 1 The father suddenly realized that his son was lying to him. 2 The foreigner offered to buy the old jar and the old woman found herself unable to refuse. 3 The boy responded to his teacher’s criticism by turning his back on the teacher. 4 The prisoner felt very regretful when he thought of his past. 5 He stood at the street corner, following his mother with his eyes until he could no longer see her 6 I don’t know which companies she was talking about when she spoke of competing firms 7 Mother walked back and forth in the corridor while her daughter was having an operation inside the operating theatre. 8 I think that it is a wise decision to ban smoking in all public places. Dictation Script of the Dictation Language is the commonest means of communication for human beings, but of people speak different languages they usually turn to other means. Gesture, then, is often the first choice. Gestures in most cases help people a lot in getting their message across. However, since the same gestures may be used for different ideas in different cultures, failures in communication often happen. Sometimes this may lead to terrible consequences. Several years ago, some European sailors were swimming near a coastal area in a foreign country, which was closed to outsiders. Seeing these unknown swimmers, the guards on the coast wanted to question them. The guards shouted to them to come nearer, and made at the same time their usual “come here” gesture. The sailors did not understand the language and took the gesture to mean “go away”, and the realized they might be near costal defenses, so they swam off. The consequence was that the guards, who were now highly suspicious, opened fire, with tragic results. Grammar work Answers B rewrite the following sentences with “it” as an impersonal subject。 1 It will be difficult for me to do. 2 It is sound policy for us to save regularly. 3 It was very dangerous for Mike to drive so fast. 4 It is a disadvantage for her to take part in a composition competition where all the other competitors are older than she. 5 It was a disgrace for her to quarrel with her husband in public. 6 It was a shame for you to cheat in the exam. 7 It is a convenient time for you to visit the hospital now. 8 It was my honour to be invited to your party. 9 It was very generous of Mary to pay the bill. 10 It was mean of him to keep everything for himself. Translation 1 It dawned on the father that his son was lying. 2 The foreigner made the old woman an offer for the old jar, and she found herself unable to refuse. 3 The boy reacted to his teacher’s criticism by turning his back on the teacher. 4 The prisoner felt regret at the thought of his past. Translation 5 He stood at the street corner, following his mother with his eyes until she was out of sight. 6 I don’t know which companies she was referring to when she spoke of competing firms 7 The mother paced up and down the corridor while her daughter was having an operation inside the operating theatre. 8 I think that it is a sound policy to ban smoking in all public places.