Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War, 1933–1941

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Chapter 34
Franklin D. Roosevelt
and the Shadow of War,
1933–1941
Question
All of the following are true of the London Economic
Conference EXCEPT
a) it revealed how thoroughly Roosevelt’s strategy for domestic
economic recovery was subordinated to his
early foreign policy.
b) delegates to the London Conference hoped to organize a
coordinated international attack on the global depression.
c) delegates were particularly eager to stabilize the values of the
various nations’ currencies and the rates at which they could be
exchanged.
d) Roosevelt was unwilling to sacrifice the possibility of domestic
recovery for the sake of international cooperation.
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Answer
All of the following are true of the London Economic
Conference EXCEPT
a) it revealed how thoroughly Roosevelt’s strategy for domestic
economic recovery was subordinated to his
early foreign policy. (correct)
b) delegates to the London Conference hoped to organize a
coordinated international attack on the global depression.
c) delegates were particularly eager to stabilize the values of the
various nations’ currencies and the rates at which they could be
exchanged.
d) Roosevelt was unwilling to sacrifice the possibility of domestic
recovery for the sake of international cooperation.
Hint: See page 853.
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Question
All of the following were true of the Reciprocal Trade
Agreements Act EXCEPT it
a) was designed in part to lift American export trade
from the depression doldrums.
b) was aimed at neither relief nor recovery, focusing
primarily on long-run reform.
c) activated the low-tariff policies of the New Dealers.
d) avoided the dangerous uncertainties of a wholesale
tariff revision.
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Answer
All of the following were true of the Reciprocal Trade
Agreements Act EXCEPT it
a) was designed in part to lift American export trade
from the depression doldrums.
b) was aimed at neither relief nor recovery, focusing
primarily on long-run reform. (correct)
c) activated the low-tariff policies of the New Dealers.
d) avoided the dangerous uncertainties of a wholesale
tariff revision.
Hint: See page 855.
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Question
The Rome-Berlin Axis involved an alliance
between
a) Nazis and Communists.
b) Fascists and Communists.
c) Nazis and Fascists.
d) Nazis, Fascists, and Communists.
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Answer
The Rome-Berlin Axis involved an alliance
between
a) Nazis and Communists.
b) Fascists and Communists.
c) Nazis and Fascists. (correct)
d) Nazis, Fascists, and Communists.
Hint: See page 856.
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Question
All of the following were true of the Neutrality Acts of 1935,
1936, and 1937 EXCEPT
a) they stipulated that when the president proclaimed the
existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would
automatically go into effect.
b) no American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, sell or
transport munitions to a belligerent, or make loans to a
belligerent.
c) they marked a strong endorsement of the traditional policy of
freedom of the seas.
d) they were specifically tailored to keep the nation out of a
conflict like World War I.
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Answer
All of the following were true of the Neutrality Acts of 1935,
1936, and 1937 EXCEPT
a) they stipulated that when the president proclaimed the
existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would
automatically go into effect.
b) no American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, sell or
transport munitions to a belligerent, or make loans to a
belligerent.
c) they marked a strong endorsement of the traditional policy of
freedom of the seas. (correct)
d) they were specifically tailored to keep the nation out of a
conflict like World War I.
Hint: See page 858.
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Question
The Quarantine Speech of 1937 was given in
___________, the unofficial isolationist capital of
America.
a) Albany
b) Boston
c) Chicago
d) Detroit
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Answer
The Quarantine Speech of 1937 was given in
___________, the unofficial isolationist capital of
America.
a) Albany
b) Boston
c) Chicago (correct)
d) Detroit
Hint: See page 859.
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Question
The European city at which the doctrine of
“Appeasement” was infamously practiced was
a) Paris.
b) Prague.
c) Vienna.
d) Munich.
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Answer
The European city at which the doctrine of
“Appeasement” was infamously practiced was
a) Paris.
b) Prague.
c) Vienna.
d) Munich. (correct)
Hint: See page 860.
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Question
All of the following were true of the Neutrality Act of 1939
EXCEPT
a) it provided that henceforth the European democracies might
buy American war materials, but only on a “cash-and-carry
basis.”
b) it meant that they would have to transport the munitions in their
own ships, after paying for them in cash.
c) it meant that America would thus avoid loans, war debts, and
the torpedoing of American arms-carriers.
d) Congress thus tightened former restrictions in response to
interventionist cries; it added others in response to isolationist
fears.
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Answer
All of the following were true of the Neutrality Act of 1939
EXCEPT
a) it provided that henceforth the European democracies might
buy American war materials, but only on a “cash-and-carry
basis.”
b) it meant that they would have to transport the munitions in their
own ships, after paying for them in cash.
c) it meant that America would thus avoid loans, war debts, and
the torpedoing of American arms-carriers.
d) Congress thus tightened former restrictions in response to
interventionist cries; it added others in response to isolationist
fears. (correct)
Hint: See page 861.
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Question
All of the following were true of the Lend-Lease Bill
EXCEPT it
a) was entitled “An Act Further to Promote the Defense of the
United States.”
b) was sprung on the country right before the election
of 1940.
c) was praised by the administration as a device that would keep
the nation out of the war rather than drag it in.
d) would send a limitless supply of arms to the victims of
aggression, who in turn would finish the job and keep the war
on their side of the Atlantic.
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Answer
All of the following were true of the Lend-Lease Bill
EXCEPT it
a) was entitled “An Act Further to Promote the Defense of the
United States.”
b) was sprung on the country right before the election
of 1940. (correct)
c) was praised by the administration as a device that would keep
the nation out of the war rather than drag it in.
d) would send a limitless supply of arms to the victims of
aggression, who in turn would finish the job and keep the war
on their side of the Atlantic.
Hint: See page 868.
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Question
All of the following were true of the Atlantic Charter
EXCEPT
a) it was formally accepted by Roosevelt and Churchill, but
rejected by the Soviet Union later that year.
b) suggestive of Wilson’s Fourteen Points, the new covenant
outlined the aspirations of the democracies for a better world at
war’s end.
c) the Atlantic Charter laid the groundwork for later advocacy on
behalf of universal human rights.
d) it promised that there would be no territorial changes contrary
to the wishes of the inhabitants (self-determination).
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Answer
All of the following were true of the Atlantic Charter
EXCEPT
a) it was formally accepted by Roosevelt and Churchill, but
rejected by the Soviet Union later that year. (correct)
b) suggestive of Wilson’s Fourteen Points, the new covenant
outlined the aspirations of the democracies for a better world at
war’s end.
c) the Atlantic Charter laid the groundwork for later advocacy on
behalf of universal human rights.
d) it promised that there would be no territorial changes contrary
to the wishes of the inhabitants (self-determination).
Hint: See page 870.
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Question
All of the following factors contributed to Japan’s attack on
Pearl Harbor EXCEPT
a) Japan was still mired down in the costly and exhausting “China
incident,” from which it could extract neither honor nor victory.
b) its war machine was fatally dependent on immense shipments
of steel, scrap iron, oil, and aviation gasoline from the United
States.
c) Roosevelt continually promoted an embargo, hoping to goad
Tokyo into a descent upon the oil-rich but defense-poor Dutch
East Indies.
d) FDR imposed the first of its embargoes on Japan-bound
supplies, ceased all shipments of gasoline, and froze Japanese
assets.
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Answer
All of the following factors contributed to Japan’s attack on
Pearl Harbor EXCEPT
a) Japan was still mired down in the costly and exhausting “China
incident,” from which it could extract neither honor nor victory.
b) its war machine was fatally dependent on immense shipments
of steel, scrap iron, oil, and aviation gasoline from the United
States.
c) Roosevelt continually promoted an embargo, hoping to goad
Tokyo into a descent upon the oil-rich but defense-poor Dutch
East Indies. (correct)
d) FDR imposed the first of its embargoes on Japan-bound
supplies, ceased all shipments of gasoline, and froze Japanese
assets.
Hint: See page 871.
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