第五章文法、逻辑、修辞与翻译 - 精品课程

advertisement
青岛滨海学院精品课程
英语精品课程
孙敏副教授
第五章 文法、逻辑、修辞与翻译

第一节 文法与翻译
第二节 逻辑与翻译
第三节 修辞与翻译
实践一
实践二
www.themegallery.com
目录
第一节 文法与翻译














文法包括字法、句法和章法等。汉译英的文法问题包括两个方面:一是汉
语原文的语法,特别是文言文语法;二是英语译文语法。前者涉及理解,
后者涉及表达。
请分析下面的译例, 注意画线部分的译法:
(1)借您的电话用用好吗?
May I use your telephone?
(2)坐在花园的篱笆旁,一个黄蜂刺了我一下。
Sitting against a fence in my garden, I was stung by a wasp.
聚也不易,散也不易。
It is not easy to gather, nor is it to part with each other.
昨晚他们家被偷了。
Their house was robbed last night.
(5) ——市政府终于批准了建设高科园的资金项目。
——差不多是时候了。不知为什么拖了这么长时间。
—The municipal government has finally voted the funds for
building a high-tech park.
—It’s about time that it did. I don’t know what took it so long a
time
www.themegallery.com
 试将下面的段落译成英语:
 现在由多少国人会讲英语雅!君不见多少人考中级、高级轻轻松松就
可以过关,可真正得了英语皮毛者,十能有几?更不要提精通二字。
所以还是奉劝那些准翻译们,下笔之前要慎之又慎:告示牌的译者虽
不用署名,可有碍国体啊!
 突然想起,前一段时间,某市的市长要出国洽谈生意,临走时要有关
部门赶制一本程式介绍。我拿到这本画册的大样,见其中的错误,真
如王胡棉衣里的虱子,捉也捉不干净。其中最大的有两处,一处是说
该市的国民生产总值(GNP)是五十元,核对了原稿,才知漏了一个
Million(百万),系五千万之误;另一处,我读到英文,吓了一跳,该
市盛产老鼠(Mice)!忙去查对应的中文,才知系云母(Mica)之误。
 一边改正,一边想,幸好我多事儿,仔细读了这即将付梓的大样英文,
否则这位市长要想欣欣然乘着飞机,拿着这本画册去招商引资,那真
是应了老百姓的一句粗话,叫光着腚推磨,转着圈儿丢人了。 (摘自
刘建波《开什么玩笑》,原载1996年5月25日《齐鲁晚报》)
www.themegallery.com
 What an increase nowadays in the number of our
countrymen who , as they claim, can speak the English
language! Small wonder if you see so many people have
passed their English test with so much ease at either
intermediate or post-intermediate levels. Still, I have my
doubt about the percentage of them who have really got
even a smattering of essential English, not to say having a
thorough command of the language, and so I feel obliged to
advise those pseudo-translators that they can never be too
careful with checking and revising what they have rendered
from Chinese to English before putting it into print. Even
with the translation of announcements and notices, where
the translator does not have to sign his name, a bad job
would bring as much dishonor to the country as it would to
the translator himself.
 I’m reminded of an English brochure I read the other day
about a city, whose Mayor had arranged it to be neatly
printed before his flight, so that he could take it abroad with
him for a trade occasion. When I opened the final proof of
the brochure, the numerous errors in it turned out to be
more than
www.themegallery.com
 one could shake a stick at. Of those gross errors, one said
that the gross national product(GNP) of the city was 50 yuan
(RMB). Upon checking against the original, I found it to be a
mistake for “ 50 million yuan”, where the word “million” had
slipped out. In another place I was taken aback when I read
that the city was abundant in “mice”! I lost no time in
checking the original, and found it was a mistake for the
mineral “mica”.
 While correcting these errors, I thought to myself that it was
indeed fortunate that I happened to have carefully read the
final proof of the brochure. Otherwise, if the Mayor flew
around the world to invite business and procure (获得)
investment with an English brochure as such, he could get
nothing from abroad, I bet, other than ridicules and disgrace.
www.themegallery.com
第二节 逻辑与翻译
 一、思维逻辑和语言逻辑
 思维逻辑指人的思维方式在语言中的反映。每个民族都有其独特的思维方式,
每一种语言都有其内在的逻辑。翻译时,就要尊重译入语的语言逻辑,不要把
原语的逻辑强加给译文读者。例如:大熊猫一胎产仔两只。
 An adult female panda gives birth to two cubs at a time.
 上面的对比反映出汉英不同的思维逻辑,汉语只说“大熊猫”就足够了,因为
“既然能产崽,必然是成年雌性熊猫,无须言明”,这是汉语的逻辑;英文里
却要加上“adult”和 “female”两词,因为能产崽,就一定是雌性,所以该明
说出来”, 这是英文的逻辑。
 下面的汉英表达法,也反映出汉英不同的思维和语言逻辑:
 (1)免费入场—entrance free
 (2) 双杠—parallel bars
 (3)座钟—standing clock
 (4)挂钟—wall clock
 (5)太平门—emergency exit
 (6)教练车—training vehicle/student vehicle
 (7)九五折—5 percent discount
 (8)母细胞—parent cell
 (9)子细胞—daughter cell
 (10)田径项目—track and field events
www.themegallery.com
 二、逻辑与修辞
 使用语言时要注意避免违反逻辑,翻译时亦如此。在原文里合乎情理
的说法换成英语有可能不合逻辑。当然,不合逻辑的用法作为一种修
辞手段使用时,翻译时要体现出来。例如:
 (1)“窃书不能算偷……窃书!……读书人的事,能算偷么?”(鲁迅
《孔乙己》)
 “Taking a book can’t be considered stealing… Taking a book,
the affair of a scholar, can’t be considered stealing!”
 “偷”与“窃”本属同一概念,孔乙己非说不同。这种违反同一律的辩
白形象地表现出孔乙己窘迫已极、强词夺理的心态。译文正确地传达
了孔乙己的用意,但 “take” 与 “steal”的语义尚不能充分表达出原
文“窃”与“偷”的概念的同一性,因而修辞效果也相应减弱。试将
“窃”与“偷”分别译作 “stealing”与 “theft”, 原文的词义关系出
来了,修辞效果也出来了。
www.themegallery.com
 (2)也许是吴所长的开场白把瓶口封紧了,应该发言的两大派都暂时
沉默,不愿过早地暴露火力。 (陆文夫《围墙》)
 Perhaps Director Wu’s opening remarks had sealed people’s
mouth, for the factions who have begun the skirmish were
temporarily silent, unwilling to reveal their firepower too
early. (Tr. Rosie A. Roberts)
 原文中有两处比喻:一个是“瓶口“(出自”守口如瓶”),另一个
是“暴露火力”。译文中,又把“发言”译作 “skirmish”,增添了一
个比喻。这一减一增显示出译者的高明:因“瓶口”与“火力”逻辑
上不相关,因此换个地方另设比喻,既保证了比喻数量相等,又保证
了逻辑上的一致。这里表面上是个修辞问题,实际上是个逻辑问题。
 (3)(孙子楚)生有枝指,性迂讷,人诳之,辄(zhe)信为真。
(蒲松龄《聊斋志异•阿宝》)
 He was born with sis fingers and was of so simple a nature
that he readily believed people who fool him.
 译文改作 “He would readily believe people”似乎好些,否则不但
“诳”与“信”的顺序有些别扭,原文的假设语气也变成了陈述语气。
www.themegallery.com
 4)同时,我们又向各国人民介绍他们感兴趣的事物。
 At the same time, we will introduce the peoples of other
nations to the things of our own which will interest them.
 原文的“他们所感兴趣的事物”没有直接译成 “interesting things
to them”,因为按照英文的逻辑,这样就等于说我们已知那些东西会让
他们感兴趣。换成定语从句,就把着眼点从 “we” 转到 “things”上
面,避免了衍生的意思。另外,汉语里习惯说“把某事介绍给某人”,
英文则要说 “to introduce someone to something”。这样,译文
既合乎译入语的习惯,在逻辑上又经得住推敲。
www.themegallery.com
 三、逻辑和语法
 汉语的名词译成英文的名词或代词,要注意单复数及性别方面的逻辑
问题。例如:
 (1)这次吵架像夏天的暴风雨,吵的时候很厉害,过得很快。可是从
此以后,两人全存了心,管制自己,避免说话冲突。(钱钟书《围
城》)
 This quarrel was like a summer rainstorm-violent while it
lasted but over very quickly. From then on, however, each
determined to control himself and avoid saying anything that
would start a conflict.
 译文里的 “himself”从逻辑上讲没有完全传达原文“自己(夫妇两个)
的所指范围。在此情况下,语言法处理应考虑逻辑要求,上例可改译
为:
 …they both determined to control themselves.(Tr. Sun Yifeng)
 (2)(赵辛媚)大家把身上的余钱摊出来,看共有多少。(钱钟书《围
城》)
 If everyone would take out the money he was carrying, they
could see how much they had altogether.
 改译:If everyone would take out the money they were
carrying,…(Tr.Sun Yifeng)
www.themegallery.com
 四、逻辑与行文
 行文叙述当中也要注意逻辑关系,适当加词,以保证思路的连续和线
索的清晰:
 (1)车又停了,妇女千恩万谢地下了车。(祝承玉《钱包》)
 When the bus stopped again, she rose, offered a thousand
thanks to her newly-found friends, and slipped out of the
bus.(Tr. He Zhifan)
 (2) 当时菅原惠庆长老怀着对祖师庭的崇高敬意,从寺中摘了一把枣子
带回日本……(常书鸿《五台名刹画沧桑》)
 Having a deep respect for the founder, Master Sugihara
picked a handful of dates from the date tree in the
Monastery and took them to Japan. (Tr. Guo Jianzhong)
 译文增加了“从寺里的枣树上”,意思就完整一些。
 由于汉英语言在意合与形合上的差异,汉译英过程中经常需要增加表
达逻辑关系的连接词语。例如:
 (3)温度升高,水的体积就增大。
 As the temperature increase, the volume of water becomes
greater.
 (4) 骄兵必败。
 Pride goes before the fall.
www.themegallery.com
 四、正反表达法
 翻译过程中的逻辑还表现为正反表达的方式,即原文正面表达的意思
在译文里可以反面的字句表达(反之亦然),意思不变,且译文更合
乎习惯。例如:
 (1)这个问题我不懂。
 This problem is above me.
 (2) 有志者事竟成。
 Nothing is impossible to a willing heart.
 (3)智者千虑,必有一失。
 There is none so wise but he is foolish at some time.
 (4)司马相如对卓文君说:“你太美丽太多才了,我怎能不爱你!”
 Sima Xiangru said to Zhuo Wenjun, “You are only too
beautiful and gifted not to make me fall in love with you!”
www.themegallery.com
 (5) 对于汉译英,你越是细心越好。
 You can never be too careful about Chinese-English
translation.
(6)她来得正是时候。
 She couldn’t have come at a better time.
正反表达法作为一种翻译技巧 不仅用于肯定与否定之间的转折,也
表现在否定与比较之间、时间的先与后之间以及原因与结果、让步与
转折、条件与结果、目的与原因等关系之间的转换,这些转换都以逻
辑为依据,逻辑关系形式可能发生变化,但语义关系不变。
www.themegallery.com
翻译实践
 一、下面是E.Gower一篇题为The Complete Plain Words(1979)
的文章中一段话的中译文,请试回译成英文,再和原文进行比较:
 有人说形容词是名词的敌人,这句话说得有道理。我们老是习惯说
“这就是事实真相”,当我们只有给人家讲“事实时,岂不叫人怀疑
讲的不是”真相”如果言“危机”必说“严重危机”、“紧急事件”
总要说“突发的紧急事件”,这俩词儿自己还能干什么呢?如果“考
虑”总离不开“认真”,当别人答应我们予以考虑时,我们就会想人
家是不是在敷衍搪塞呢?假如“决定”总要冠以“定而不移的决定
“的话,一个光秃秃的”决定岂不成了一纸空文?倘若“前提”总要
加上“必不可少”或者“不可或缺”,我们就要考虑,没有这两个限
定词的“前提”还是不是前提。听人说到“缺员”的“空缺”时,我
们就会纳闷,一个不“空”的“缺”或一个不“缺”的“空”究竟是
不是的缺员。若是“部件”都说“构成整体的部件”或整体里面的部
件“,那么单独的”部件“除了当“零部件”之外就只有“零”了。
www.themegallery.com
It has been wisely said that the adjective is the enemy of
the noun. If we make a habit of saying “the true facts are
there”, we shall come under suspicion when we profess to
tell merely “the facts”. If a crisis is always “acute” and an
emergency always “grave”, what is left for those words to do
by themselves? If “active” constantly accompanies
consideration, we shall think we are being fobbed off (欺骗)
when we are promised bare consideration. If a decision is
always qualified by “definite”, a decision by itself becomes a
poor filleted thing. If conditions are customarily (通常)
described as “prerequisite” or “essential”, we shall doubt
whether a condition without an adjective is really a condition
at all. An unfulfilled vacancy may leave us wondering
whether a mere vacancy is really vacant. If a part is always
an integral part or a component part there is nothing left for
a mere part except to be as a spare part.
www.themegallery.com
 二、翻译下列句子,注意加词、更换词序及正反表达法,以符合英文
的逻辑:
 1.夏沔尊(1886-1946)所著的《我与之书》是一本难得的好书。
 Books and I by Xia Mianzun (1886-1946) is a good book
hard to come by.
 2.现在只啃自己的专业,不问专业之外的事的学生越来越少了。
 There are fewer and fewer students who cage themselves in
their majors, deafening themselves to anything outside their
fields.
 3.努力学习吧,努力学习三年五载,你就会熟练地掌握英语了。
 Study hard! Study hard for three to five years! By that time
you will be proficient in English.
 4.冰冻三尺,非一日之寒。
 It takes more than one cold day for the river to freeze three
feet deep. (Rome could not built in one day.)
 5.人们对这种行为已经见怪不怪了。
 People have seen this behavior too often to be surprised by
it any more.
www.themegallery.com
 6.复试是在一个星期后举行。录取与否都取决于此。这时将决定一个
人终生的事业。
 The final test will take place in a week. Its result will
determine each candidate’s luck-admitted or otherwise.
 7.天下乌鸦一般黑。
 One crow is not any whiter than another.
 8.“人不为己,天诛地灭”,这是资产阶级的人生观。
 Everyone for himself and the devil take the hindmost—this is
the bourgeois point of view on life.
 9.她在收集确凿的材料以证明他的论点。
 He is collecting authentic material that proves his argument.
 10.他们希望这样能为促进世界和平作贡献,为振兴中华作贡献。
 They hope they will thus contribute to the cause of the world
peace and the effort to revitalize China.
www.themegallery.com
第三节 修辞与翻译
 修辞是提高语言表达效果的手段。用词是否贴切,造句是否得当,谋
篇是否严密,描述是否生动,这些是一般修辞的任务。除了一般修辞
外,还有特殊修辞之说,即修辞格的运用。翻译工作既要注意一般修
辞,又要注意特殊修辞。
 一、用词要贴切
 (1) 围墙一倒,事情来了。(陆文夫《围墙》)
 with the wall down, things began to happen. (Tr. Rosie A.
Robert)
 从小说的情节看,“事情”并非泛指,而是特指下文出现的麻烦事、
怪事,所以,应在things 之前加上queer, troublesome 之类的修饰
语。
 (2)说他(赵辛媚)调戏汪太太,把她气坏了。(钱钟书《围城》)
 She said he flirted with Mrs. Wang and got her upset.
 把“调戏”译作 “flirt with”,表达不出原文用词的分量,拟改译为 he
took liberties with。
www.themegallery.com
 下一个译例摘自鲁迅先生的《药》, 请从给出的同义词中选出最得当
者填入译文留出的空格内。
 老栓慌忙摸出洋钱,抖抖地想交给他,却不敢去接他的东西。那人便
焦急起来,嚷到:“怕什么?怎的不拿!”老栓还踌躇着;黑的人便
抢过灯笼,一把扯下纸罩,裹了馒头,塞与老栓;一手抓过洋钱,捏
一捏,转身走了。嘴里哼着说:“这老东西……”
 Hurriedly Old Chuan ______(searched, groped, fumbled, felt)
for his dollars, and _____(shivering, trembling, shaking,
quivering) he was about to _____(hand, take, bring, send)
them over, but he dared not take the object. The other grew
impatient and _____(shouted, roared, screamed, cried),
“What are you afraid of ? Why not take it?” When Old Chuan
still hesitated, the man in black _____(took, grabbed,
snatched, caught) his lantern and _____ (removed, stripped,
tore off, ripped off) its paper shade to _____ (wrap up, cover,
fold, enclose) the roll. This package he, _____(thrust, threw,
handed, pushed) into Old Chuan’s hand, at the same
time,_____ (taking, grabbing, seizing, snatching) the silver
and giving it a cursory (匆匆忙忙的) feel. Then he turned
away, _____(muttering, murmuring, mumbling, grumbling)
“Old fool…”
www.themegallery.com
 二、词语的重复与精简
 汉语喜欢重复,英语崇尚简洁。汉语的重复作为一种修辞手段有两种
作用:一是为了强调,重复表达一个意思,或增添修饰语,加强语义;
二是为了便于词语搭配,或平衡节奏,增加可读性。这些具有重复意
义的句式和词语,在汉语中是非常自然的,人们易于接受,甚至少了
它们语句就缺少力量。英语是一种忌重复(redundancy)的语言,
在汉语里习以为常的重复词语到了英语里要么不合逻辑,要么累赘冗
长。所以翻译时,都要有所删削省略。试修改现面词语的英译文:
 1.难忘的记忆: an unforgettable memory—lasting memory
 2.不必要的浪费:unnecessary waste—waste that may
otherwise be avoided
 3.不切实际的幻想: impractical illusion—fond
hope/wish/expectation; to fondly imagine
 4.毫无根据的诽谤: groundless slander—slander; groundless
allegations
 5.耳朵听得见,眼睛看得见: audible to the ear and visible to
the eye—audible and visible; aurally and visually perceptible;
have good sight and hearing
www.themegallery.com
 (一) 修辞性重复
 汉语的修辞性重复到了英文里不一定产生同样的效果,一般需要简化。例如:
 (1)这是革命的春天,这是人民的春天,这是科学的春天!让我们张开双臂,
热烈拥抱这个春天把!
 Let us stretch our arms to embrace the spring , which is one of the
revolution, of the people, and of science.
 汉语的对比结构常含有重复成分,英译时要适当从简:
 (2)责任制度,条件成熟了的就可以实行,条件不成熟的不要实行。
 The system of job responsibility can be adopted where the
conditions are ripe, and not otherwise.
 (3)你要觉得合适就干,不合适就不干。你自个儿看着办吧。
 Go ahead if you think the job suits you and don’t if not. It’s all up
to you to decide.
 有时汉语通过词汇重复表示强调,而英语则要借助动词或用代词复指:
 (4)我是劝过了,但没有用。
 I did persuade him, without avail.
 (5) 我们都该想想,立达怎样才可不死呢?互生其实也便不死了。(朱自清
《哀互生》)
 Now we should all think about question: what must we do to keep
Lida alive? If he is kept alive, Husheng lives on. (Tr. Liu Shicong)
www.themegallery.com
 (二) 搭配性重复
 汉语中的范畴词也构成一种语义上的重复。范畴词是具有概括意义、表示人或
事物分类范畴的词语,常用在具体词的后面,对其进行分类总括,以便和其他
词语(词义)搭配。到了英语里,这里具体词语直接就能构成搭配关系,原文
的范畴词便成了冗赘。例如:
 (1)见到自己的故乡,他想起了童年的情景。
 The sight of his native place called back his childhood.
 (2) 据说他对邓的灵活态度印象很深。
 He was described as impressed by Deng’s flexibility.
 (3)那时他们最渴望的就是结束这摇摆不定的局势。
 What they wanted most was an end of uncertainties.
 (4) 我国人口现在正值生育高峰,人口增长过快,不但将影响人均收入的提高,
而且粮食和住宅的供应、教育和劳动就业需要的满足,都将成为严重的问题,
甚至可能影响社会的安定。
 The total number of birth is now at its peak. Excessive population
growth will not only adversely affect the increase of per-capita
income but also cause serious difficulties in food supply, housing,
education and employment, and may even disrupt social stability.
www.themegallery.com
 (三)节奏性重复
 汉语成语中由许多音韵整齐、语意重复的四字对偶词组,翻译时不必
亦步亦趋,译出一组的意思就够了。
 花言巧语—fine words
 油嘴滑舌—glib tongue
 长嗟短叹—sighing deeply
 精疲力竭—exhausted
 随波逐流—to swim with the stream
 发号施令—to issue orders
 土崩瓦解—to fall apart
 两面三刀—two faced tactics
 水深火热—in deep waters
 自吹自擂— to blow pone’s own trumpet
www.themegallery.com
 三、描述要生动
 某种表现手法或修辞手段的选用,是为了达到某种修辞目的。如叙述
要明白晓畅,描写要生动逼真,说明要条理清楚,辩论要充分有力。
这里仅以“化静为动”为例,说明翻译时修辞手段的运用。
 (1)面向着积水滩,背后是城墙,坐在石上看水中的小蝌蚪或苇叶上
的嫩蜻蜓,我可以快乐地坐一天。(老舍《想北平》)
 I can spend a whole day enjoying myself sitting on a rock to
observe tiny tadpoles in the water or tender dragonflies on
reeds whiles facing me lies Ji Shui Tan Pond and right behind
me rises the high city wall.
 (2) 花坛北面有一株腊梅花,南端是一丛南天竹。(王士菁《鲁迅传》)
 A winter plum stood on the northern end of the terrace, and
a nandina on the southern end.
 (3)俄见粉垣环护,绿柳周垂。贾政与众人进了门,两边尽是游廊相接。
(曹雪芹《红楼梦》)
 Whitewashed walls and green willows confronted them then.
Along the walls ran covered corridors.
www.themegallery.com
 (4) 山行六七里,渐闻水声潺潺而泄出于两峰之间者,酿泉也。(欧阳
修《醉翁亭记》)
 A walk of two or three miles on those hills brings one within
earshot of the sound of falling water, which gushes forth
from a ravine known as the Wine-Fountain.
 以上例句中的“是”、“有”、“渐闻”等静态描写的词语用“run”、
“stand”,“bring”等具有动态意义的词语来译,更好地传达了原文
生动的描写效果。
www.themegallery.com
翻译实践
 一、将下列段落译成英语:
 夜色中看这堵墙,十分奇妙,颇有点诗意。白墙、黑瓦、宝蓝色的漏
窗泛出晶莹的光辉,里面的灯光从漏窗中透出来,那光线也变得绿莹
莹的。清风吹来,树枝摇曳,灯光闪烁变幻,好像有一个童话般的世
界深藏在围墙的里面。抬起头来从墙顶上往里看,可以看到主建筑的
黑色屋顶翘在夜空里,围墙也变得不像围墙了,它带着和主建筑相似
的风格进入了整体结构。附近的马路也变样了,好像是到了什么风景
区或文化宫的入口。(陆文夫《围墙》)
www.themegallery.com
Seen dimly through the moonlight, the boundary wall looked
enchanting. It was full of poetry with its white wall, black
tiles and sapphire blue windows suffused with sparkling
brilliance. The light that shone out through the patterned
blocks was transformed to a shining emerald green. A light
breeze blew, swaying the tree branches and making the rays
of light glimmer and dance as if there was a fairytale world
hidden deep within. Above the wall one could see the black
roof of the building inside jutting into the night air and the
wall suddenly seemed to change, melting into one with the
main building whose style it matched to perfection. The
nearby road had changed too, it seemed to be the entrance
to a scenic area or cultural palace. (Tr. Rosie A. Roberts)
www.themegallery.com
 二、翻译下列句子:
 1.下面分畦列亩,佳蔬菜花,一望无际。(stretch)
 Below, neat plots of fine vegetables and rape flowers
stretched as far as eye could see.
 2.黄河以南,是巍巍泰山;黄河以北,是一片开阔的原野。 (lie,
spring)
 South of the Yellow River spring the lofty ranges of Taishan
Mountains, while to the north lies a vast expanse of open
country.
 3.四处有的是旋风,一股一股的,把风沙卷起多高,像是平地冒起的
大烟,打着转在沙漠上飞跑。
 Everywhere are whirl winds, rising one after another, lifting
smoke-like yellow sand from the ground and rapidly rolling
and swirling about in the desert.
 4.宫门前的一条东西向的大街,足有二百二十米之宽,道路两旁有青
槐和榆树,并有相当完整的排水系统。
 The street outside the palace, running from east to west,
was a good 220 meters wide. All the street were lined with
ash or elm trees and draining pipes lay underneath.
www.themegallery.com
 5.湖里有十来枝荷花,苞子上清水滴滴,荷叶上水珠滚来滚去。
 Crystal drops were dripping from a dozen lotus buds in the
lake, while beads of water rolled about the leaves.
 6.二十五年后的一个春天,从关东开进一趟列车,直向保定驰来。
 One spring say, twenty-five years later, a train pulled
towards Baoding from the Northeast.
 7.清清的溪水,潺潺地流着,像仙女身上美丽的飘带,从高崖上伸展
到遥远的地方去。
 Rippling crystal streams stretched away into the distance
from the towering bluffs like the beautiful streamers of a
fairy maid.
 8.这个城市刚刚收到一次今年最严重的台风的袭击,窗外残枝残叶狼
藉满地,整排竹篱委身在满是积水的地方,一片惨淡的景象。
 The town had just been hit by the worst typhoon of the year.
The ground outside was strewn with broken twigs and dry
leaves. Fallen bamboo fences submitted to the sodden
ground. What a pitiful sight!
www.themegallery.com
 9.半园月挂在天空,夜还没有降临,空气里带着黄昏的香味。
 A half moon hung in the sky before nightfall, and the air was
pervaded with the fragrance of dusk.
 10.晨雾开始消散,山头从轻纱似的淡雾里露出来。朝阳染红了这座
小荒山。
 The morning mist was now lifting and the top of the hill
peered from amidst the crepe –like faint fog. The little
barren hill was tinged with glowing morning sun.
www.themegallery.com
 V. Summary:
 1.什么是文法?
 文法包括字法、句法和章法等。汉译英的文法问题包括两个方面:一
是汉语原文的语法,特别是文言文语法;二是英语译文语法。前者涉
及理解,后者涉及表达。
 2. 如何处理汉英思维逻辑与语言逻辑的差异?
 (1)尊重译入语的语言逻辑,不要把原语的逻辑强加给译文读者。
 (2)不合逻辑的用法作为一种修辞手段使用时,翻译时要体现出来。
 (3)汉语的名词译成英文的名词或代词,要注意单复数及性别方面的
逻辑问题。
 (4)正确使用正反表达法。正反表达法作为一种翻译技巧 ,不仅用
于肯定与否定之间的转折,也表现在否定与比较之间、时间的先与后
之间以及原因与结果、让步与转折、条件与结果、目的与原因等关系
之间的转换,这些转换都以逻辑为依据,逻辑关系形式可能发生变化,
但语义关系不变。
www.themegallery.com
 汉语中常见的修辞法的的英译:
 一、用词要贴切
 二、汉语喜欢重复,英语崇尚简洁。汉语中的重复性词语在翻译时,
都要有所删削省略
 三、描写性的词语,“化静为动”。
 VI. Consolidation:
 参读书目:1.汉英翻译基础教程 (冯庆华),第九章 汉英句子比较与
翻译

2.汉英翻译基础教程 (杨晓荣)第五章 汉英词语翻译
www.themegallery.com
www.binhai.com
Download
Related flashcards

Ideologies

24 cards

Ontology

34 cards

Scientific method

20 cards

Aesthetics

23 cards

Philosophy of science

42 cards

Create Flashcards