Basic Communication Skills Basic Communication Skills ESTABLISHING RAPPORT Field of Consciousness Basic Communication Skills How do you go about Establishing Rapport? You You You You You need Self-Confidence must Understand People must be Enthusiastic must make Eye Contact must be Interested in them Basic Communication Skills Communication is a Series of Experiences of Hearing Smell Seeing Touch Taste Basic Communication Skills PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION MESSAGE ENCODING TRANSMISSION DECODING RECEPTION FEEDBACK SE ND ER RE CE IV ER RECEIPT Basic Communication Skills Communication - Meaning com·mu·ni·ca·tion - Show Spelled Pronunciation[kuh-myoo-ni-key-shuhn]–noun 1.the act or process of communicating; fact of being communicated. 2.the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs. 3.something imparted, interchanged, or transmitted. 4.a document or message imparting news, views, information, etc. 5.passage, or an opportunity or means of passage, between places. 6.communications, a.means of sending messages, orders, etc., including telephone, telegraph, radio, and television. b.routes and transportation for moving troops and supplies from a base to an area of operations. 7.Biology. a.activity by one organism that changes or has the potential to change the behavior of other organisms. b.transfer of information from one cell or molecule to another, as by chemical or electrical signals. Origin: 1375–1425; Basic Communication Skills Communication - Meaning Communication is a dynamic process… Through this process we convey a thought or feeling to someone else. How it is received depends on a set of events, stimuli, that person is exposed to. How you say what you say plays an important role in communication. Basic Communication Skills TOTAL COMMUNICATION PROCESS Writing 9% Speaking 30% Reading 16% Listening 45% Basic Communication Skills LEVELS OF COMMUNICATION VERBAL NON-VERBAL Intra verbal: intonation of word and sound Extra verbal: implication of words and phrases, semantics Gestures Postures Movements SYMBOLIC Basic Communication Skills VERBAL COMMUNICATION 1. Oral Communication 2. Written Communication Basic Communication Skills NON – VERBAL COMMUNICATION 1. Body language 2. Kinesics, Proxemics & Paralanguage 3. Intention 4. Manner: directness,sincerity 5 Dress and clothing (style, color, appropriateness for situation) 7. Signs & Symbols. Basic Communication Skills BARRIERS OF COMMUNICATION Communication Barrier Psychological & Human 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Personal Emotion Biases Lack of trust Premature Evaluation. Expert Language Sign & symbols Physical 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Geographical distance Mechanical failure Physical obstruction Technological malfunction Time lag Organizational 1. 2. 3. 4. Rules & Regulations Policies Hierarchy Culture Basic Communication Skills Barriers in Communication (that have to do with the COMMUNICATOR) Unwillingness to say things differently Unwillingness to relate to others differently Unwillingness to learn new approaches Lack of Self-Confidence Lack of Enthusiasm Voice quality Prejudice Basic Communication Skills Barriers in Communication (that have to do with the COMMUNICATOR) Disagreement between verbal and non-verbal messages Negative Self Image Lack of Feedback Lack of Motivation and Training Language and Vocabulary Level Lack of Self Awareness Basic Communication Skills Barriers in Communication (that have to do with the RECEIVER) Selective Perception Unwillingness to Change Lack of Interest in the Topic/Subject Prejudice & Belief System Rebuttal Instincts Personal Value System Here-and-Now internal & external factors Basic Communication Skills External Barriers in Communication Environment The venue The effect of noise Temperature in the room Other People – Status, Education Time Basic Communication Skills OVERCOMING COMMUNICATION BARRIERS ABC of Constructive Communication A Approach B C Build Bridges ustomize your communication Basic Communication Skills OVERCOMING COMMUNICATION BARRIERS •Approach is the manner of addressing both the person and the subject •Building Bridges: Respect, Trust, Commonality •Customize: Seek first to understand, before being understood Basic Communication Skills 7 C’s OF COMMUNICATION •Credibility •Capability •Content •Context •Channel •Consistency •Clarity Basic Communication Skills LISTENING Basic Communication Skills BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING Pre-judgment- Listeners who jump to conclusions Self-centeredness – Shift attention from speaker to themselves Selective Listening – Tune the speaker out Wandering mind – Your mind processes information four times faster than rate of speech. Basic Communication Skills 4 Levels of Listening The The The The Non-Listener Marginal Listener Evaluative Listener Active Listener Basic Communication Skills Improving Listening Skills By not being Preoccupied Being Open Minded & Non Defensive Minimizing Interruptions Effective Listening is: Hearing, interpreting when necessary, understanding the message and relating to it. By Asking Questions Basic Communication Skills LET THE OTHER PERSON KNOW YOU ARE LISTENING S: O: L: E: R: Stand or sit straight, turn your face squarely to the other and smile Have an open body position Lean towards the other person slightly Maintain Eye contact and make Encouraging noises Relax and be comfortable Basic Communication Skills ACTIVE LISTENING Listen for concepts, key ideas and facts. Be able to distinguish between evidence and argument, idea and example, fact and principle. Analyze the key points Look for unspoken messages in the speaker’s tone of voice or expressions. Basic Communication Skills ACTIVE LISTENING Keep an open mind. Ask questions that clarify. Reserve judgment until the speaker has finished Take meaningful notes that are brief and to the point Basic Communication Skills COMMUNICATION 7% WORDS 38% PARALINGUISTIC Words are only labels and the listeners put their own interpretation on speakers words The way in which something is said - the accent, tone and voice modulation is important to the listener. 55% BODY LANGUAGE What a speaker looks like while delivering a message affects the listener’s understanding most. Basic Communication Skills NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION Basic Communication Skills INTERESTING THINGS ABOUT BODY LANGUAGE It has no words or sentences, but it does send bits of information that combine into messages. Those messages, which are sometimes clear and sometimes fuzzy, are mostly about your feelings. People can learn to read those messages with a fair degree of accuracy. Basic Communication Skills INTERESTING THINGS ABOUT BODY LANGUAGE You cannot, not have body language- you are sending messages nonverbally all the time. Especially when you are trying not to! Your preferred body positions and movements do say something about the kind of person you are. If your words say one thing and your body another then people will believe your body, not your words. You can change how you’re feeling by consciously changing your body language. Basic Communication Skills TYPES OF BODY LANGUAGE Remember that you are dealing with “PEOPLE” (P)OSTURES & GESTURES (E)YE CONTACT How do you position yourself? (P)RESENTATION How do you deliver your message? (L)OOKS How’s your “Lighthouse”? (O)RIENTATION How do you use hand gestures? Stance? Are your looks, appearance, dress important? (E)PRESSIONS OF EMOTION Are you using facial expressions to express emotion? Basic Communication Skills Written Communication The ability to convey your message in writing using proper grammar is a basic requisite for nearly every job. Once you have control of grammar, you can work to enhance your style. However, written communication as compared to oral communication is at a disadvantage because of the absence of non-verbal gestures, voice variation and physical expressions. This is why the importance of clarity and accuracy of the content of our written message becomes all the more critical. Written Communication can be in the form of: 1. Letters 2. E-mails 3. Notices 4. In-house Magazines Basic Communication Skills Steps to ensure effective written communication Plan Like nearly any activity, written communication too requires a plan and a structure. Certain things must be clearly ascertained like Sender: From whom is the communication starting? Receiver: Who is the end receiver/audience of the written communication? Purpose: Why are we making the communication? What is the expected outcome: what do you expect the receiver to do? Basic Communication Skills Content The Structure of the content of the message must be Brief: Brevity and simplicity avoids any confusion in understanding the message. The content must be: Short Sentences Simple usable words Facts and Figures Suit it to the audience Request feedback Basic Communication Skills Write it Once we have done the above, we could proceed to actually writing our communication on paper, bearing a few things in mind. Double spacing to improve readability, as used on this page Use of paragraph to make the communication more logical and understandable Neat, uniform handwriting, in case it is not typed or printed Avoid jargon, acronyms, technical terms unless essential Basic Communication Skills Writing Business e-mail Understanding Email and e-mail template E mail Address Definition To This option is used for the primary recipient of the message. Cc Means carbon copy. This option is used when you want to send a copy of the message to someone. Bcc Means blank/ blind carbon copy. If you want to send a copy of the message to someone without the original recipient’s knowledge. Basic Communication Skills Subject A good subject description makes the person to whom you’re sending aware of the nature of your message. So, always remember to add the subject and keep the subject line short and relevant, and not vague Basic Communication Skills E mail Template When formatting the structure for e-mails, there are six basic parts required in every email. Opening salutation Opening Line Body of the email Closing Line Closing Salutation Signature Basic Communication Skills Opening salutation It means a polite expression of greeting, used to begin a letter or an email. For example: “Dear Sir/Madam! In opening salutation “Mr. or Ms” are used either with the full name or with the last name, as “Hello Mr. Mehra” and not “hello Mr Amit” Basic Communication Skills Opening Line Opening line in a business letter or e mail is used to - - - to inform the recipient about the reason of writing to make reference to previous correspondence. to acknowledge the previous mail to inform how you found the recipient’s name and address Basic Communication Skills Some good opening lines With reference to your letter of 8 June, I ... I am writing to enquire about... After having seen your advertisement in ..., I would like... Thank you for your letter regarding... Thank you for your letter/e-mail about... Basic Communication Skills Body of the email It is usually placed in the middle of the text. It conveys the message and it consists of two or more paragraphs, according to the content. The first word always begins with capital letter. For each new point to be stressed, a new paragraph is started. It states the facts, develops the most important points in logical sequence and gives further information or details on the subject matter. Basic Communication Skills Closing Line It concludes a letter, states what the writer wants to obtain from the recipient (a telephone call, quick reply, a piece of information etc), thanks the recipient for the attention. It also refers to future action, encourages him/her to establish future relationship and to offer assistance to clarify further questions or concerns. Basic Communication Skills Some good closing lines I look forward to your reply I look forward to hearing from you Please advice as necessary We look forward to a successful working relationship in the future Should you need any further information, please do not hesitate to contact me I would appreciate your immediate attention to this matter Basic Communication Skills Closing Salutation It is a polite way to bring a letter to a close and it must always be in agreement with the opening salutation. When the recipient's name is unknown to you: Dear Sir ... Yours faithfully When you know the recipient's name: Dear Mr Hanson ... Yours sincerely Dear Ms Hanson ... Yours sincerely When addressing a good friend or colleague: Dear Jack ... Best wishes/Best regards Addressing whole departments: Dear Sirs ... Yours faithfully Basic Communication Skills Signature The person who is responsible for the letter always must add the signatures, followed by designation, company name, contact number, email address and the website address of the company. Basic Communication Skills Points to Remember while writing emails Try to keep the email brief Check for punctuation, spelling and grammatical errors Use caps when appropriate Format the email for plain text rather than HTML. Use “Arial 8-10” font for professional look. Try to keep the length of the line at 80 characters or 60 in case message is likely to be forwarded. When you are writing directions or want to emphasize something important bullet your main points. Avoid sending emails to more than four addresses at once. Instead, create a mailing list so that readers do not have to scroll too much before getting to the actual message. When you are sending an attachment tell your respondent what the name of the file is, what program it is saved in, and the version of the program.