Martin Luther PPT

The Reformation
Martin Luther
Causes of the Reformation
• Renaissance emphasis on the secular and
individual challenged church authority
• Printing Press spread secular ideas
• King didn’t like the church trying to control
• People tired of paying papal taxes
Problems with the Catholic Church
• 1. Critics of the Church claimed its leaders were
2. Popes of the Renaissance spent way too much
money on worldly affairs.
One ceremony cost 1/7 of savings
Pope Leo X- Most extravagant Pope. Spent huge
sums of money on art and parties.
“Since God has given us the papacy, let us enjoy
Problems with the Catholic Church
• Lower church officials were not very good
• Poorly educated
• Married
• Gambling
• Drinking
• Leo X wanted to
remodel St. Peter’s
He needed money
To do this he had
church officials sell
indulgences- pardon
for the commission of
a sin
Basically a get out of
hell free card
What is an Indulgence?
• Indulgence= a Pardon, forgiveness for
wrong doing.
– Who would he sell them to?
• Sinners- release them from fault.
• Buy them for your relatives
– Especially if they were dead and needed help in the
• Buy them for future sins
– That would be the way to plan ahead.
– Can you See a problem?????
Who was Martin Luther
• Son of a Miner
• German Monk
• Professor at the
University of
Resented the Pope’s
official, Johan Tetzel,
selling indulgences
Taking a Stand!!!!
• October 31,1517
Martin Luther nails his
95 Theses to the
Wittenburg Church
Protesting the acts of
the Church.
Wanted a debate, but
got a revolution
If you havin’ church
problems I feel bad
for you son, I got 95
problems and the
pope is one!
Three Basic Teachings of Luther
• 1.People could win salvation only by faith
in God’s gift of forgiveness. “Salvation by
• 2. All people of faith were equal, therefore
people could read and interpret the bible
for themselves
• 3. All Church teachings should be based
on the bible.
The Pope’s Threat
• 1520 Pope Leo X threatened Martin Luther
with excommunication from the church
unless he recanted his statements
• Luther refused to recant and publicly
burnt the Pope’s decree condemning him
• Pope Leo X then excommunicates Martin
• Do not pass go, do not collect $200, go
straight to hell.
Luther becomes an outlaw
• 1. Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V,
controlled Germany.
• Issued the Edict of Worms- declared
Luther an Outlaw and a Heretic. No one
could aid Luther
• Luther goes into hiding and translates the
Bible into German
Lutherans Were Born
• Priests became
Wear normal clothes
Services led in
German instead of
Clergy were free to
The Peasants Revolt
• 1. 1524- peasants take Luther’s ideas of
Christian Freedom to heart and demand
an end to serfdom
• 2. Peasants roam the countryside raiding
monasteries, churches, etc
• 3. Luther horrified. Calls for their
• 100,000 dead. Many lose faith in Luther
See the difference
How did we get Protestants?
• Many princes of Germany support Luther,
therefore they seized property from church and
independence from Charles V
Become known as Protestants- Christians who
belong to non-catholic churches
Charles V wins, but couldn’t unite the church
1555- Peace of Augsburg- the ruler of each
German state can pick the religion of his state
Differences Between Catholics and
• Protestants
• Catholics
• Faith, Sacraments,
Good Works
The Bible as
interpreted by the
Priests appointed by
Church and cannot
Elaborate Mass,
Service in Latin, 7
• Faith Alone
• Bible as
interpreted by
each individual
Priesthood of
believers, priests
can marry, select
own minister
Simple service in
the vernacular, 2
(Lords Supper
and Baptism)