Northern Humanism, Northern Renaissance, Religious

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Northern Humanism, Northern
Renaissance, Religious
Reformations, and Late
Mannerism
1500-1603
Focus of Chapter
Northern Humanism - Inspired by both
Classical studies and Late Medieval lay
piety.
 Reformation
 Counter-Reformation
 Late Mannerism


Northern Humanism
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Study of Christian
writings and GrecoRoman classics
Emphasis on simplicity
and Christ’s teachings
Rabelais – French
humanist
Marguerite of Angouleme
Erasmus – most
influential humanist of the
period. Author of The
Praise of Folly
The Northern Renaissance




The culture of
sixteenth century
Northern Europe
Northern
Renaissance
literature
Montaigne – Essays
Shakespeare –
Renaissance and
Mannerist plays
Northern Renaissance Painting
Influence of Protestant Reformation on
painting
 Secular subjects

Durer

Paintings (portraits)
and engravings
Durer
Durer
Durer
Durer
Grunewald

Isenheim Altarpiece
Bosch
Peter Bruegel
Bruegel
The Protestant Reformation

Causes:

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
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Radical reshaping of Western society
Spiritual yearnings of human beings
Historical trends occurring during the Middle Ages
Corruption and abuses in the church
Rise of sovereign states
Decay of medieval thought
Revival of humanism
Luther

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
In 1517, published his Ninety-five Theses
against sale of indulgences, the sacraments,
and authority of the pope
In 1520 Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther
Luther’s beliefs

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Salvation comes from God’s grace, not good works
Sole source of authority was the Bible, not Pope
Retained only two sacraments: baptism and
communion
Translated Bible into vernacular
Married Katherine von Bora
Luther
Calvin
Institutes of the Christian Religion
 Belief in predestination
 Government subordinate to the state
 Calvinism was the most international of
the new sects

John Calvin
The Reform of the English Church


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In 1529, King Henry VIII asked the pope to annul
his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, who failed
to produce a male heir
When the pope denied his request, Henry
declared himself head of the Church of England
Anglican beliefs are summarized in the Thirtynine Articles
Elizabeth became queen and head of the
English Church.
King Henry VIII
Queen Elizabeth
The Counter Reformation
Roman Catholic Reform Movement
 Three fronts

Reformed papacy
 New Monastic Orders
 Council of Trent
 Church’s unyielding position

Late Mannerism and the Baroque
Influenced by the Counter-Reformation
 Arts and music should be accessible to
everyone
 Sole aim of art was to serve the Church
 A simplified art that spoke to the masses
 This didn’t happen until the Baroque
Period
 Late Mannerist art was too complex

El Greco
His paintings embody the spirit of Late
Mannerism
 Spanish
 Spiritual vision
 Elongated bodies, sharp lines, luminous
colors

El Greco
El Greco
El Greco
El Greco
Tintoretto


Feverish, emotional
style
Last Supper
Tintoretto
Tintoretto
Extra Credit Assignments for this
Chapter
Read Erasmus, In Praise of Folly and write
a response
 Read Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses and
write a response
 Read Hamlet or watch a version of Hamlet
and write a response

Required Assignments for this
chapter

Watch Luther DVD and write a response
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