Opener – Sept. 10
What does it mean
to reform?
School Reforms
 Work with your small group members to
come up with 10 reforms that you would
like to see here at school.
 You will be sharing, so make sure they
are appropriate!
Prior to the Reformation all
Christians were Roman Catholic
The [REFORM]ation was an attempt
to REFORM the Catholic Church
People like Martin Luther wanted to
get rid of the corruption and restore
the people’s faith in the church
In the end the reformers, like
Luther, established their own
The Reformation caused a split in
Christianity with the formation of
these new Protestant religions
100 Years War and Black Death
Scientific Advances which contradicted
the Church
The Corruption within the Catholic
 Example: Did not accept usury (loans
with interest) but accepted
indulgences and government funds
Social Causes
•Renaissance created values of
humanism and secularism = people
questioning the Christian Church
•The Printing Press = much easier
for ideas critical of the Church to
spread and be read.
Political Causes
• Powerful monarchs
(Kings/Queens) challenged the
Christian Church for power in
•Leaders throughout Europe
thought of the Pope as a foreign
ruler of their people.
Economic Causes
• European monarchs jealous of
the Church’s wealth
•People hated paying taxes to the
Religious Causes
• Some Church leaders were
becoming too secular and corrupt.
•Church selling indulgences and
other practices
Martin Luther
John Calvin
Henry VIII
Lived from 1483-1546 in
Father encouraged him to
study law
A sudden religious
experience inspired him to
become a monk
He became troubled over the
possibility of not going to
He turned to the Bible, and
confession for comfort
In the Bible he found the
answer he was looking for
“The righteous shall by his faith.”
Luther realized that only faith (in
the ultimate goodness of Jesus), not
good deeds, could save a person. No
good works, rituals, etc. would save a
person if they did not believe.
• Johann Tetzel was a Friar near Luther who was
collecting money from Church goers by selling
• Indulgences: Tetzel was telling people that if they
bought enough they could get into heaven.
•A total scam!
•However, the Church was really selling these in
order to make money to rebuild St. Peter’s Basilica
• Luther responded to this by…
A list of things he thought
were wrong with the Catholic
Church (95 Complaints)
He criticized:
The Power of the Pope
The Extreme Wealth of
the Church
Indulgences (Catholic
concept of Salvation)
Gutenberg’s Printing Press made it
possible for Luther to spread his
Posted his 95 Theses on Church
doors in Germany
Gained support from people and
criticism from Church
•The first thing
printed on
press was the
•This is a picture
of a page from
one of
•Salvation by faith alone
•Bible is the ultimate authority
•All humans are equal before God
For this reason we forbid anyone from this time forward to dare, either
by words or by deeds, to receive, defend, sustain, or favour the said
Martin Luther. On the contrary, we want him to be apprehended and
punished as a notorious heretic, as he deserves, to be brought
personally before us, or to be securely guarded until those who have
captured him inform us, where upon we will order the appropriate
manner of proceeding against the said Luther. Those who will help in
his capture will be rewarded generously for their good work.
The Diet of Worms
1520 Pope Leo X orders Luther to
give up his beliefs
Luther burned the order and was
Luther went into hiding where he
translated the New Testament into
German – spreading his beliefs even
He was the Pope during the
height of the corruption
“I am fed up with the
world, and it with me.
I am like a ripe stool,
and the world is like a
gigantic anus, and so
we’re about to let go
of each other.”
Some Local German Churches
accepted Luther’s ideas
Lutheranism was formed
Supported by some German Princes
who issued a formal “protest” against
the Church for suppressing the reforms
The reformers came to be known as
[PROTEST]ants - Protestants
Influenced by Martin Luther
Disagreed with Luther’s “Salvation
through faith alone.”
Created his own Protestant religion
in Switzerland
“May little
chickens dig out
your eyes 100,000
Calvin speaking to
another reformer whose
ideas he disagreed with
Calvin believed in:
 Salvation through Predestination
At birth it is decided if you will go
to heaven or hell
Those who
Went to heaven
Were the elect
God knows everything that will
happen in your life
Purified approach to life:
No drinking, swearing, card
playing, gambling etc..
Hard Work/Good Deeds:
Although you were predestined
to go to Heaven, if you were a part
of the elect you were naturally a
better person
Therefore, if you were part of
the elect you lived a hardworking
and trustworthy life and did good
Started in Switzerland –
England = Puritans (Sepratists)
Scotland = Presbyterians
Holland = Dutch Reform
France = Huguenots
Germany = Reform Church
Why were Martin Luther’s ideas able
to spread so quickly throughout
Henry VIII-English Reformation
Wife-Catherine of Aragon-Has Daughter
Mary-Henry wanted a son
 Asked Pope to annul his marriage (divorce
was not allowed)
 Pope refused- Henry asked Parliament
(English Congress) to end Pope’s (Catholic
Church’s) power in England
 Act of Supremacy-Henry VIII- Head of
England’s Church- Anglican Church
Henry VIII
He was big and
handsome and wore
fine clothes
He loved games,
horse-riding and
He spoke four
languages, wrote
poetry and played
But most important to him…
He wanted to be a
strong king, with a
firm hold on the
He most wanted a
son to succeed him
Catherine of Aragon
Married 1509
 She was daughter to
the king of Spain
 She had a daughter,
Mary, but no sons
 She was too old for
more children
 In 1533, Henry
divorced her
Anne Boleyn
Married 1533
 She was young,
pretty and witty
 She had one
daughter, Elizabeth
 She was beheaded
for being unfaithful
in 1536
Jane Seymour
Married 1536 (11
days after execution
of Anne)
She had a son,
Died soon after
Henry probably
loved her best of all
his wives
Anne of Cleves
Married 1540
The marriage made
a link between
England and
Henry thought she
was ugly
Divorced 1540 – the
same year!
Catherine Howard
Married 1540
 She was 20, Henry
was 49
 She was unfaithful
 Executed in 1542
Catherine Parr
Married 1543
She liked family life
and looked after
Henry’s children
She outlived Henry
English Monarchy
After Henry VIII’s death 1547
 Edward
VI-Jane Seymour’s son Died after 6
 Mary- Daughter of Catherine of AragonReturned England to Catholic “Bloody Mary”
 Elizabeth- Daughter of Anne Boleyn-Returned
to Protestant-Ruled from 1533-1603- The
“Virgin Queen”- Virginia named for her.
Queen Elizabeth’s Reign
Rule: 1558-1603
 She
brought back Protestantism, but was very
tolerant of Catholics
 Attempted to spread the empire through
colonization, however stopped after the
Roanoke disaster
 Perhaps her greatest victory was the defeat of
the Spanish Armada in 1588
The Tudors: HISTERIA!!!
Other Reformers
Anabaptists- “Baptize Again”-separation
of Church- & State-later become
Mennonites & Amish- influenced the
Quakers and Baptists
 Catholic Reformation- Ignatius-founded
the Jesuits-Build schools, convert nonCatholics, stop Protestant religions
Council of Trent
Church’s interpretation of Bible was final
 Christians needed faith AND good works
for salvation
 Bible and the Church were both needed
for guiding Christian life
 Indulgences were valid expressions of