Phrases PowerPoint - Stanhope Public School

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The Phrase
Chapter 14
Pages 415-437
What is a Phrase?
A phrase is a group of related words that is
used as a single part of speech and that
does not contain both a verb and its
subject.
What is a clause?
A clause is a group of related words that is
used as a single part of speech and that
does contain both a verb and its subject.
Let’s see, are these
phrases or clauses?
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As soon as the bell rings
Around the beautiful, fragrant garden
That I really want
Any student can join
Thinking about tonight’s game
To run the marathon
Swimming the length of the pool
What is a Prepositional Phrase?
A prepositional phrase includes a
preposition, a noun or a pronoun called
the object of the preposition, and any
modifiers of that object.
There are 2 kinds of prepositional phrases:
adjective phrases and adverb phrases
Prepositional Phrase Examples
The Seine River flows through Paris.
The car in front of us slid into an icy snow bank.
During the stormy night, the black horse ran off.
The dish is filled with raw carrots and celery.
What is an Adjective Phrase?
A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun
or a pronoun is called an adjective phrase.
An adjective phrase tells what kind or which
one.
Adjective Phrase Examples
Wang Wei was a talented painter of
landscapes.
Mrs. O’Meara is the one on the left.
What is an Adverb Phrase?
A prepositional phrase that modifies a verb,
an adjective, or an adverb is called an
adverb phrase.
An adverb phrase tells how, when, where,
why, or to what extent (how long, how
many, how much, or how far).
Adverb Phrase Examples
The sportswriter interviewed the coach before the
game.
Before the game the team did two laps.
Over the weekend, the family went to two
different museums.
On April 24, 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope
was launched into space.
What is a Verbal
Phrase?
A verbal is a verb used as a noun, adjective,
or adverb. A verbal phrase consists of the
verbal and any complements or modifiers
of the verbal.
There are 3 types of verbal phrases:
participial phrase, gerund phrase, and
infinitive phrase.
What is the Difference
Between a Participle and a
Participial Phrase?
A participle is a verb form that can be used as an
adjective.
Present – The smiling child waved.
Past – The police officers searched the abandoned
warehouse.
A participial phrase consists of a participle and any of
its complements or modifiers
Present - Seeing itself in the mirror, the duck seemed quite
bewildered.
Past - Broken into hundred of pieces, the mirror was
ruined.
What’s Being Modified?
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The trotting horses were not afraid of
the crowd.
This plate, bought at a flea market, is a
valuable antique.
Seeing itself in the mirror, the duck
seemed quite bewildered.
The abandoned house was very spooky.
I heard the dog barking loudly.
BEWARE! MISPLACED
MODIFIERS!
A participial phrase
should be placed
as close as
possible to the
word it modifies.
Otherwise, the
phrase may
appear to modify
another word and
the sentence may
not make sense.
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Slithering through the grass,
I saw a snake trimming the
hedges this morning.
Trimming the hedges this
morning, I saw a snake
slithering through the grass.
What’s the Difference
Between a Gerund and a
Gerund Phrase?
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A gerund is verb form ending in –ing that is used
as a noun.
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Skiing down that slope was fun. – subject
Dad’s favorite pastime is fishing for bass. – predicate
nominative
We enjoyed hiking. – direct object
Give sailing a try. – indirect object
Please sweep the sidewalk after mowing. – object of
preposition
What’s the Difference
Between a Gerund and
a Gerund Phrase?
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A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and any
modifiers or complements the gerund has. The
entire phrase is used as a noun.
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Having a part-time job may interfere with your
schoolwork. – subject
The townspeople heard the loud clanging of the fire
bell. – direct object
We crossed the stream by stepping carefully from
stone to stone. – object of preposition
BE CAREFUL!
Do not confuse a gerund with a present
participle used as part of a verb phrase
or as an adjective.
Pausing, the deer was sniffing the wind before
stepping into the meadow.
What’s the Function of the
Gerund in These
Sentences?
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Typing the paper took an hour.
In the past, working took up most people’s time.
My sister has always enjoyed riding horseback.
I look forward to resting after this tiring job is done.
Uncle Eli’s specialty is barbecuing on the grill.
Considering the other choices, Melinda decided on
walking.
Why won’t that dog stop barking?
What’s the Function of
the Gerund Phrase?
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The eerie sound they heard was the
howling of the wolves.
We sat back and enjoyed the slow rocking
of the boat.
Angelo’s pleading rarely influenced his
mother’s decisions.
Ants try to protect their colonies from
storms by piling up sand against the wind.
What’s an Infinitive?
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An infinitive is a verb form that can be used
as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most
infinitives begin with to.
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Wendy really likes to skate. - noun
If you want information about computers, that is
the magazine to read. - adjective
The gymnasts were ready to practice. - adverb
WARNING!
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Don’t confuse an infinitive with a
prepositional phrase beginning with to.
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A prepositional phrase always has an object that
is a noun or pronoun.
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I handed the vase to my mother.
An infinitive is a verb form that usually begins
with to.
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She is ready to swim.
What’s the Part
of Speech?
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Jen and I like to walk together. – noun
We go to my house to listen to music. – adverb
To install the fan took two hours. – noun
The best time to visit Florida is December
through April. – adjective
Nunu got up to dance. – adverb
He needs a car to drive. – adjective
What’s an Infinitive
Phrase?
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An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive
and any modifiers or complements the
infinitive has. The entire phrase may be used
as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.
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The crowd grew quiet to hear the speaker. adverb
Peanuts and raisins are good snacks to take on a
camping trip. - adjective
To lift those weights takes great strength. - noun
What’s the Part of
Speech?
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Taking care of your bicycle is one way to make it
last. – adjective
We used machine oil to lubricate the chain. –
adverb
I learned to place a small drop of oil on each link. –
noun
Then Aunt Elsie showed me the valve that is
needed to fill the inner tube. – adverb
My aunt said not to twist the wrench too hard. –
noun
I thanked her for taking the time to help me. adjective
What’s an Appositive?
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An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed
beside another noun or pronoun to
identify or describe it.
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The cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin was the first
person in space.
I chose one person, her, to organize the
volunteers.
OK, What’s an
Appositive Phrase?
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An appositive phrase consists of an
appositive and its modifiers
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Officer Webb, one of the security guards,
caught the burglar.
Leonardo da Vinci , an Italian painter known
for his artworks, was also an architect,
engineer, and scientist.
What About Commas?
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Commas are generally used with appositives
that refer to proper nouns.
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Appositives and appositive phrases that are not
essential to the meaning of the sentence are
set off by commas.
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Rachel Carson, a biologist and writer, published the
book Silent Spring in 1962.
My sister, Mary, has red hair. – only one sister
If the appositive is essential to the meaning, it
is generally not set off by commas.
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My sister Mary has red hair. – more than one sister
Find the Appositives
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Tacos, one of the most popular Mexican dishes,
are served here.
My twin, Daniel, rode in the Mardi Gras parade.
I’ll have a sandwich, tuna salad on rye bread.
Shelley asked everyone where her friend Bianca
had gone.
They sang the song “I’ve Been Working on the
Railroad” over and over all the way down the
path.
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