Class 8 - CTE - Online Learning Management System

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Instructional Strategies
for Teaching Vocabulary
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“Making Choices” (from Isabel Beck, p. 57): Tell children, “if any of the
things I say might be examples of people clutching say, “clutching”. If not,
don’t say anything:
--holding a purse tightly
--softly petting a cat’s fur
--holding on to branches when climbing a tree
--blowing bubbles and trying to catch them
If any of the things I say would make someone look radiant, say “you’d look
radiant”. If not, don’t say anything:
--winning a million dollars
--getting a hug from a favorite movie star
--walking to the post office
--cleaning your room
--having the picture you painted hung in the school hall
Great Vocabulary Books!
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Favorite books which motivate children about vocabulary learning
Academic Notebooks (Mazano refers to a spiral notebook or threering binder; he has a major section devoted to student sustained
silent reading and other sections are reserved for subject
vocabulary.)
Rosenblatt & Iser: it’s important for students to interact with what
they read; teacher facilitates student interactions and responses.
Repeated exposure to words helps content be stored in permanent
memory. When teachers facilitate student interaction on vocabulary,
then this increases the amount of exposure students have to
information –expands their language experience base. The more
students learn about a topic, the more they want to share it with
others. They become validated in their enthusiasm!
Vocabulary Instruction &
Sustained Silent Reading
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Marzano: Students should have direct
vocabulary instruction on content
vocabulary. Comprehension will increase
by 33 percentage points when vocabulary
instruction focuses on specific words
important to the content they are reading.
Isabel Beck’s thoughts
Independent Reading and R5
Alternate Reading Program Share
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Edmark
Qualitative Reading Inventory
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Word Identification: (automaticity—
measures correct words per minute; % of words
correctly identified (includes decoding)
Word Recognition in Isolation (WRI) : flash &
untimed
How to select leveled passages (**Note: QRI is
on reserve at the library!)
Word Recognition in Context
Passage Comprehension (Pre-primer through
high school; narrative & expository text; prior
knowledge, predictions, retelling, explicit &
implicit questions)
Word Lists
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Measure accuracy of word identification
Speed & automaticity of word
identification
Determine starting point for reading
passages
Cooter Comprehensive Reading Inventory
uses sentences to find level of reading
passages
Reading Passages
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Estimate reading level & begin there
Concept questions for background
knowledge
Oral and silent reading
Different types of text: narrative or
expository
Measuring Comprehension
Retelling or unaided recall
 Two types of questions
--implicit & explicit
Look Backs
--without lookbacks—comprehension by
memory
--with lookbacks – comprehension during
reading; ability to skim
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Materials Needed
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Student instructions handout
Copies of word lists (use index card or card with
window cut out as shown before)
Copies of stories
Copies of record keeping sheets
Develop your own system of organization (e.g.
notebook, plastic sleeves or laminated copies of
stories)
Administering Word Lists
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Rule of Thumb: Start two grades below grade
level (or administer word list & find out where
child is scoring at least 70%)
How accurate when identifying words?
How automatic when identifying words?
What decoding strategies are used by student?
Difference between words in isolation versus
words in context?
Administering Word Lists
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Read directions for word lists to student
Scoring:
--identified automatically (within a second)
--identified but delayed (sounded out or
delayed)
Self correction – write “c” and count as
correct
Administering Word Lists
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Find independent, instructional & frustration
levels
Independent: Total correct: 90% & above, 1820 words
Instructional: Total correct: 70-89%; 14-17
words
Frustration: Total correct: Less than 70%; 13
words or less
Once at frustration, STOP!
Passage Administration
Use word list level to estimate beginning passage or
starting point – highest independent word list level
 Assess prior knowledge – use concept questions
 Passage Reading
--select passage based on independent word list reading
--can tape record – prepare student
--do not supply words
--read directions to students
--record miscues/determine instructional level
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Concept Questions
Assessing Prior Knowledge
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Students who have background knowledge of
ideas and understand vocabulary prior to
reading the text are more successful with
comprehension
Scoring (QRI-4: pages 55-58)
3 points
2 points
1 point
0 points
Comprehension Scoring
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QUESTIONS
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EXPLICIT:
Answers must come from passage
 Do not count answer that comes from prior
knowledge; no ½ points
IMPLICIT:
Answer must relate to a clue in the passage
Be sure to QUERY – what clues in the passage tell you?
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Comprehension Scoring
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Five Questions: Independent Level, 5 correct;
Instructional Level, 4 correct; Frustration Level, 0-3
correct
Six Questions: Independent Level, 6 correct;
Instructional Level, 4-5 correct; Frustration Level, 0-3
correct
Eight Questions: Independent Level, 8 correct;
Instructional Level, 6-7 correct; Frustration Level, 0-3
correct
Ten Questions: Independent Level, 9-10 correct;
Instructional Level, 7-8 correct; Frustration Level, 0-6
correct
Assessing Listening
Comprehension
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Good to measure when student has difficulty reading
and comprehending at the primer level
Assessing level of material that student can understand
when material is read to him or her
Allows teacher to see if student can benefit from orally
presented material at his or her grade level
Evaluated same way as oral or silent reading
Examiner reads passage to student
Student retells what s/he heard and answers specific
questions
How To Interpret Results
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Independent Level= the level at which a student can read
successfully without assistance. Teacher should choose material
written at this level for free reading pleasure or for independent
tasks. Also good for fluency practice at independent level (98%
oral reading accuracy and 90% comprehension on word
lists)
Instructional Level = the level at which a student can read with
assistance. Oral reading may be less fluent at this level, but it
should contain some sense of rhythm and expression. Materials
written at this level should be chosen for reading and content area
instruction. The teacher introduces concepts and gives background
knowledge necessary for the understanding of the material. (9597% oral reading accuracy and 70%+ comprehension and
word lists)
Interpreting Results
(Continued)
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Frustration Level= teachers should
avoid material that is at the frustration
level. At this level, the student is
completely unable to read the material
with adequate word identification or
comprehension. (less than 90% oral
reading and less than 70%
comprehension and word lists.)
Differences in Vocabulary
Development
Profound differences in vocabulary development and
knowledge among learners in various socio-economic
groups
--first graders from higher socio-economic status groups
knew about twice as many words as lower socioeconomic status children (Graves, Brunetti & Slater,
1982; Graves & Slater, 1987)
--high school seniors near the top of their class knew about
four times as many words as their lower performing
classmates (Smith 1941)
--high knowledge third graders had vocabularies about
equal to lowest performing 12th graders (Smith, 1941)
--Once established, such differences appear difficult to
ameliorate (Biemiller, 1999; Hart & Risley, 1995)
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What’s Happening with vocabulary
instruction and how do children
learn words?
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Before 2001, studies found very little vocabulary
instruction in schools—a robust approach involves
directly explaining the meanings of words along with
thought-provoking, playful interactive follow up.
Learning words from context? It does occur, but in the
course of reading, research shows in small increments.
(Not every word is learned, and those that are learned
need multiple encounters; of 100 unfamiliar words met
in reading, between 5 & 15 will be learned (Beck, p. 3)
(This presupposes that children are reading extensively
where they encounter more challenging words & that
they could infer meaning from context!!!)
Misdirective contexts, nondirective
contexts, general contexts &
directive contexts
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Many natural contexts are not all that informative for deriving word
meanings. There were many contexts which would confuse
children. (Examples, p. 4-5, Beck)
Misdirective Contexts: those that rather than revealing the meaning
of the target word, seem to direct the student to an incorrect
meaning
Nondirective contexts
General contexts
Directive contexts
Written context: important source for new vocabulary, but relying
on learning word meanings from independent reading is not an
adequate way to deal with students’ vocabulary development.
How one knows a word
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Can be described along a continuum
No knowledge
General sense
Narrow, context-bound knowledge,
Knowledge of a word by not being able to recall
it readily enough to use it in appropriate
situations
Rich, decontextualized knowledge of a word’s
meaning, it’s relationship to other words, and it’s
extension to metamorphorical uses
Contextual Clues to teach students
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External context clues: meaning cues in the text
surrounding a new vocabulary word
Internal context clues: prefixes, suffixes and stems
Studies show that instruction above had a moderate
impact on students’ ability to utilize context clues
In 4 out of 14 studies, students used context cues in
absence of any instruction and they did as well as
students who received instruction in using context! (So
being prompted to use context and having time to
practice is as powerful as much more elaborate
instruction.)
Evidence that teaching morpheme (the smallest units of
meaning like prefixes, suffixes, root words) can improve
children’s and adults’ skills at inferring the meanings of
words.
Language Development
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Most talked about study (Hart & Risley’s Meaningful Differences in Everyday
Experiences of Young American Children (1995): Authors observed 42
families over 2 years beginning when each participating child was 6-9
months old. (Families were from all socio-economic groups.) The amount
of language a child experienced varied dramatically as a function of social
class. The less affluent the family, the less was said to the child. Clear
relationship between the quantity and quality of input of children’s
vocabulary development.
Children who experienced the most language in the first three years of life
were, with the parent’s language interactive style the very strongest
predictor of reading achievement.
Reading with children can increase vocabulary – the more parents interact
with children over books, the better developed is the children’s vocabulary –
increases children’s language competence. Exciting are studies to support
parents in the ways to help their children the most.
Flood classroom with vocabulary rich talk during formal lessons & informal
interactions.
Urge more systematic attention to vocabulary – when vocabulary
acquisition has had an impact on reading –increased reading
comprehension.
Notes Halfway Through our Course!
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Louisa Moats’ article (Summer 1995) on the
“Missing Foundation in Teacher Education” –
“graduate level teachers are typically
undereducated for the very demanding task of
teaching reading and spelling explicitly.”
(Gives evidence of gaps of knowledge & how
important that is to linguistic instruction; policy
changes occurred
Update on Personal Goal and my support to
help you
Other
Four minute feedback!
Teaching Word Parts
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Teaching roots, affixes has been traditional for
vocabulary development
Adams (1990): logic of teaching word parts (i.e.
for “duce” means to lead, & helps children with
produce, seduce, induce.
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However, teaching beginning or less skilled
readers about these may be a mistake. (In
word study program, these don’t appear until
child is developmentally after the mid-fourth
grade level!)
Affixes
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Prefixes augment the meaning of words
Suffixes change the part of speech of words to
which they are attached
Prefix “un” accounts for 26% of total number of
prefixed words
More than half (51%) of the prefixed words
have “un”, “re” and “in”(not)
Four prefixes (un, re, in and dis) account for
58% of prefixed words!
Six Lessons for Affixes
by White & colleagues
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Teacher gives concept of prefix (difference
between unkind and refill and trick words such
as uncle & reason
Teacher explains meaning of “un” and “dis”
Addresses negative meanings of in, im, ir & non
Address less common meaning of un and dis (do
the opposite) and less common meaning of in
and im (in and into
Teacher explains and exemplifies and meanings
of en, em, over and mis
Relationship Between Grammatical
Awareness & Reading
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Syntax is grammar—derived from Greek word for “arrangement”
Syntax is the “way in which words are arranged to show relationships of
meaning within and sometimes between sentences
Chomsky (who developed most influential theoretical frameworks for syntax
said that humans are biologically predisposed to acquire language
True! By age five, children master the syntax rules of their native
languages and their language is more adult like! Their knowledge of syntax
is implicit!
Children who perform well on measures of grammatical awareness (from
speech therapists’ text on syntactic absurdities—Rides Sally bike her—make
a sentence) tend to be good readers.
Good readers who have greater sensitivity to syntax could monitor reading
better. Then why do poor readers have difficulty with this?
Syntactic awareness is one aspect of more general language delay or deficit
in language. It could be a deficit in grammatical awareness is indicative of
more global language problem.
Grammatical Awareness & Reading,
Continued
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Lots of studies show correlation between early deficits in
language & reading difficulties well into adolescent
years.
Those with understanding language are at most risk.
Even those with expressive language problems are at
some risk.
Other researchers: deficits in working memory cause
what appears to be deficits in syntactic skills
Some linguistic deficits may be a consequence of reading
disabilities rather than the effect of preexisting language
problems. Good readers read more than poor readers
and are exposed to more language.
What Can Parents & Teachers Do?
(to support syntax)
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Model complex syntax in conversations with children
Ask questions so children elaborate on and extend their ideas
Parents should read aloud to children with reading disabilities –
expose children to books that are linguistically more complex than
they are capable of reading
Use reciprocal teaching to help children with text that has more
complex syntax: is technique for more strategic readers—uses
questioning, clarifying, predicting and summarizing.
Teachers can read ahead & find difficult sentences or portions.
Teacher can model questions to help clarify meaning: Who was
doing the action? What are they doing? Where are they? What
happened first? If kids answer correctly, say, “How did you know?
Children can go back and reread in text to support their answers.
Clarifying step can also be used to help with misunderstandings:
students could restate difficult sentences in their own words. They
could use background knowledge and overall context to
comprehend complex sentences.
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