Main Ideas

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CHAPTER 3 Sect. 1
Learning Target 7.2.1
We will describe the geography and
climate of the Arabian Peninsula, and
discuss the impact of surrounding
bodies of water and of nomadic and
settled lifestyles.
Geography and Life in Arabia
7.2.1
The Big Idea
Life in Arabia was influenced by the harsh desert climate of
the region.
Main Ideas
• Arabia is mostly a desert land.
• Two ways of life—nomadic and sedentary—developed in
the desert.
Main Idea 1:
Arabia is mostly a desert land.
• The Arabian Peninsula lies near the intersection of three
continents, so it is called a “crossroads” location.
– Africa
– Asia
– Europe
• Arabia’s location has shaped its physical features.
Physical Features
• Arabia lies in a region with hot, dry air.
• The climate makes it hard for plants and animals to
survive.
• Huge sand dunes, or hills of sand shaped by the wind,
cover large parts of Arabia.
• Water exists mainly in oases, wet, fertile areas that are
scattered across the deserts.
Main Idea 2:
Two ways of life—nomadic and sedentary—
developed in the desert.
• In a nomadic life, people moved from place to place within
tribes for protection and as the seasons changed.
• Sedentary people settled in oases, where they could farm.
These settlements often became towns.
• Towns became centers of trade. Many had a souk, a
market or bazaar, where goods were traded.
Test Questions
Please note, there will be 10
questions from Section one on
the chapter test.
Standard 7.2.1
Identify the physical features and describe the
climate of the Arabian peninsula, its relationship
to surrounding bodies of land and water, and
nomadic and sedentary ways of life.
CHAPTER 3 Sect. 2
Learning Target 7.2.2
We will examine the life and
teachings of Muhammad, the origins
of Islam, and Islam’s connection with
Judaism and Christianity.
Origins of Islam
7.2.2
The Big Idea
Muhammad, a merchant from Mecca, introduced a major
world religion called Islam.
Main Ideas
• Muhammad became a prophet and introduced a religion
called Islam in Arabia.
• Muhammad’s teachings had similarities to Judaism and
Christianity, but they also presented new ideas.
• Islam spread in Arabia after being rejected at first.
Main Idea 1:
Muhammad became a prophet and
introduced a religion called Islam in Arabia.
• A man named Muhammad taught a new religion to the
people of Arabia.
• Muslims believe that God spoke to Muhammad through an
angel and made him a prophet.
• While Muhammad was in a cave meditating, the
angel visited him, according to Islamic belief.
• The messages he received were the basis for Islam
and were collected in the holy book of Islam called
the Qur’an.
Main Idea 2:
Muhammad’s teachings had similarities to
Judaism and Christianity, but they also
presented new ideas.
• Muhammad taught that there was only one God,
Allah, which means “the God” in Arabic. This is
similar to Christianity and Judaism.
• Muslims also recognize many of the same prophets as
Christians and Jews.
• Muslims don’t believe that Jesus was the son of God.
• Arabs were used to worshipping many gods, so many of
them rejected Muhammad’s teachings.
• Muhammad said the rich and poor should be equal. Many
wealthy merchants did not like this idea.
Main Idea 3:
Islam spread in Arabia after
being rejected at first.
• Islam spread from Mecca to Medina.
– Rulers of Mecca began to threaten Muhammad and his
followers with violence as Islam started to influence
more people.
– Muhammad left Mecca and went to Medina.
– This departure became known in Muslim history
as the hegira, or journey.
– Islam thrived in Medina, and other Arab tribes in the
region accepted Islam.
Islam Spreads from Medina
to the Rest of Arabia
• Muhammad’s house became the first mosque, or building
for Muslim prayer.
• He reported new revelations about rules for society,
government, and worship.
• Mecca finally welcomed Muhammad back to the city and
accepted Islam as its religion.
Test Questions
There will be 15 test questions on
Section 2 of the text.
Standard: 7.2.2
Trace the origins of Islam and the
life and teachings of Muhammad,
including Islamic teachings on the
connection with Judaism and
Christianity.
CHAPTER 3 Sect. 3
Learning Target 7.2.3
We will explain the importance of the
Qur’an and the Sunnah. Identify
their influence on the daily lives of
Muslims and on Islamic beliefs,
practices, and laws.
Islamic Beliefs and Practices
7.2.3
The Big Idea
Sacred texts called the Qur’an and the Sunnah guide Muslims
in their religion, daily life, and laws.
Main Ideas
• The Qur’an guides Muslims’ lives.
• The Sunnah tells Muslims of important duties expected of
them.
• Islamic law is based on the Qur’an and the Sunnah.
Main Idea 1:
The Qur’an guides Muslims’ lives.
• The world has a definite end, and on that final day, God
will judge all people. The central teaching of the
Qur’an is that there is only one God, Allah, and
Muhammad is his prophet. (1a) Q1
• The Qur’an sets out guidelines for moral behavior,
acts of worship, and rules for social life(1b) Q1
– Muslims were encouraged to free slaves.
– Women could own property, earn money, and receive
an education.
– No eating pork or drinking alcohol.
– One must wash before prayer in order to be pure.
– Jihad, Struggle
Qur’an
• The Qur’an discusses Jihad, which means to
make an effort, or to struggle. Jihad refers to
the inner struggle people go through in their
effort to obey God and behave according to
Islamic ways.
– Jihad can also mean the struggle to defend the
Muslim community, or historically, to convert
people to Islam. The word has also been
translated as “holy war,” because of the
struggles with outside forces.
• The Qur’an is the Islamic Holy Book of Muslim
people.
Main Idea 2:
The Sunnah tells Muslims of important duties
expected of them.
• The hadith (huh-deeth)is the written record of
Muhammad’s words and actions. It is the basis for the
Sunnah.
• The Sunnah provides a model for the duties and way of
life expected of Muslims.
• The first duties of a Muslim are known as the Five
Pillars of Islam, which are five acts of worship
required of all Muslims. (2a) Q1
• Ramadan is the 4th duty in the 5 Pillars of Islam. It
is a reminder that God is more important than ones
body and that there are people in the world who
struggle each day to get food. (2b)Q3.
• People shouldn’t owe others money and should obey
their leaders.
The Five Pillars of Islam
1. Saying “There is no god but God, and
Muhammad is his prophet” A statement of
faith.
2. Praying five times a day Prayer
3. Giving to the poor and needy Charity
4. Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan
Fasting
5. Traveling to Mecca at least once on a hajj A
pilgrimage to Mecca
Main Idea 3:
Islamic law is based on the Qur’an and the
Sunnah.
The Qur’an and the
Sunnah form the
basis of Islamic law,
or Shariah.
Shariah is very
important to
Muslims because it
governs all aspects
of their lives.
Shariah is a system
based on Islamic
sources and human
reason that judges
the rightness of
actions taken.
Test Questions
There will be 12 test questions on
Section three of the text.
Standard 7.2.3
Explain the significance of the
Qur'an and the Sunnah as the
primary sources of Islamic beliefs,
practice, and law, and their influence
in Muslims' daily life.
Test
There will be a map portion of the test. It
will consist of identifying the following
places:

Mecca

Medina

Asia

Europe

Arabia

Africa
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