The Muslim World 600-1250 - Arlington Public Schools

The Muslim World
Roots of Islam
in Arabia
Sasanid Empire, 224-651
–Silk Road
Arabian Peninsula before Muhammad
Nomads rare, but important –
caravan link
Born in 570
In 610,
(contains actual
revelations of
Beliefs of Islam
Pillars of
–Faith (Allah is supreme
–Zakat (offerings,
–Hajj (pilgrimage)
Formation of the Umma
Muhammad fleas from Mecca to Medina with followers
and establishes a community of believers– “umma”
Spread of Islam under Muhammad
Islam Spreads
Four caliphs
By 750, the Muslim empire
stretched from the Atlantic
Ocean to the Indus River
The Four Caliphs
 Abu
Bakr (632-634)
 Umar (634-644)
 Uthman (644-656)
 Ali (656-661)
Muslim World, 1200
Copyright © McDougal Littell. All Rights Reserved.
Muslim Empire Splits
caliph (Ali)
succeed the fourth
Umayyad (661-750) Land Conquests
In Spain, the Umayyads held power over a society in which Islamic,
Roman, German, and Jewish cultures combined to form a unique
Iberian variant of Islamic civilization. Muslim Spain saw substantial
urbanization; the introduction of citrus crops; a diverse, irrigated,
agricultural sector; and a florescence of Muslim and Jewish
intellectual activity.
Downfall of the Umayyid
Abbasids Give it a Shot
Rise and Fall of the Abbasid
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.
Rise of Abbasid Caliphate
Family of Abbas—an uncle of Muhammad—took
over and established the Abbasid Caliphate
Provided renewed religious leadership, which they
combined with a style of rulership and royal
ceremony derived from the Sasanids
Literature and learning, including the translation
of Greek texts and secular Arab poetry, thrived
under the Abbasids
Baghdad was a center of Abbasid culture; other
areas shared in this culture to varying extents.
The Abbasid period: high rate of non-Muslim
subjects convert to Islam
Muslim Conquests
Women in the Islamic World
1. Muslim women did have rights under Islamic law
• right to inherit and own property and to retain it
in marriage
• right to divorce, to remarry
• to testify in court
• go on pilgrimage
2. Women were veiled and secluded as they had been
previously in the Byzantine and the Sasanid
• Could be influential in the family, but only
slave women could have a public role or
appear in public before men.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Chapter 8 – BIG PICTURE!
Islam emerged among the nomadic
pastoralists and caravan traders of Arabian
 Muhammad (Arab trader from Mecca)
experienced revelations that called people
to submit to God’s will
 Muhammad fled to Median with followers–
where umma was formed
 Succession troubles: Sunni and Shi’ite split
– Caliph = office(s) or leader(s) of succession
Ch. 8– BIG PICTURE! (con’t)
 Early
successor- Abu Bakr confirmed
5 Pillars
 Shari’a = foundation of Islamis
civilization (derived from Quran)
 Women in general enjoyed relatively
high status under Islamic law, though
tended to live in seclusion
 Urbanization and religious conversion
reinforced each other and prompted
the expansion of agriculture, trade,
science, technology
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