College English 1
FENG Pengpeng
Unit 8
Media
Outline
Text A: Conversation
Nothing to Watch
Text B: Advertising
Exercises
Text A
Conversation:
Nothing to
Watch
Text A: An overview
It’s been a tough day for both Ann and
Rita, and they’re trying to relax in front of
the television. Unfortunately, deciding
what to watch isn’t very simple.
 Rita: Would you please stop flipping through
the channels like that?
 Ann: I’m just trying to find something decent
to watch.
 Rita: Wouldn’t it be easier if you looked in the
TV Guide instead of driving me nuts?
 Ann: I’m sorry, I don’t mean to get on your
nerves, but there’s absolutely nothing on. Those
trashy news programs are on every channel!
Ann: Oh, come on! All the news programs
are the same.
Rita: No way! They are totally different. I
admit some of them focus more on
scandal than on real news. But Primetime
Live does cover important stories.
Ann: Like what?
 Rita: Well, stories on political figures,
government corruption, crime…
 Ann: The problem is the news presenters have
become more important than the news.
 Rita: What do you mean?
 Ann: The main goal of the networks is high
rating. To gain this they make the journalists
stars. Some anchors are so popular that people
are willing to believe anything they say, whether
accurate or not.
Rita: But I don’t see anything wrong with it.
After all, they make the news interesting
and credible because of their charm.
Ann: Yeah, but that’s why it’s impossible to
distinguish fact from fiction. In an era when
technology has made it possible to
experience events as they really happen,
we are moving away from the news.
Rita: We are moving away from the
traditional ways of presenting news. Do
you mind handing me the remote? I’ll
find something we can watch.
Ann: OK. Here you are. I’m in the mood
for something light and fun.
Detailed reading
It’s been a tough day for both Ann and
Rita, and they’re trying to relax in front of
the television. Unfortunately, deciding
what to watch isn’t very simple.
tough 艰难的 e.g.
~ negotiation/ competition
The company faces tough competition. 这家公
司面临着艰难的竞争。
unfortunately 不幸地
Unfortunately, I missed the last train. 我不幸
错过了末班火车。
deciding what to watch 动名词做主语
动名词作主语练习
 ____ is a good form of exercise for both young and old.
A. The walk
B. Walking
B
C. To walk
D. Walk
Note:不定式做主语常表示具体的某一动作;表示泛指或
一般的抽象的概念时,多用动名词。
 There is no use _____ over the split milk.
C
A. cry
B. to cry
C. crying
D. cried
 Note:在”There/It +be+ no use (good/ help/ need)”之
后常用动名词做主语,而少用不定式。但是如果出现for
sb.则用不定式,例句:There is no good for us to do
that exercise.
翻译
It’s been a tough day for both Ann and
Rita, and they’re trying to relax in front of
the television. Unfortunately, deciding
what to watch isn’t very simple.
 安和丽塔度过了辛苦的一天,她们现在试
图看看电视放松放松。遗憾的是,决定看
什么并非易事。
 Rita: Would you please stop flipping through
the channels like that?
 Ann: I’m just trying to find something decent
to watch.
 would you please… 表示请求或要求
 stop doing sth. 停止做某事
比较:stop to do sth 停止手头的事情去做某事
flip through the channels 快速换频道
flip through 快速浏览,一扫而过 e.g.
I haven't read the book properly, I just flipped
through it to see what it was like. 我没有真正地看过这
本书,只是浏览了一下看是关于什么的罢了。
 I’m just trying to find something decent to
watch.
something decent 形容词修饰不定代词时放在不定代词
后面 e.g.
 I didn’t do anything wrong.
 I try to buy something decent to send to her as her
birthday present.
 试题:I don’t like the decoration,could you B
please show me ______?
A. different something
B. something different
C. different everything
D. everything different
Rita: Would you please stop flipping
through the channels like that?
Ann: I’m just trying to find something
decent to watch.
丽塔:你能不能不要那样换频道?
安:我只是想找到值得一看的节目。
Rita: Wouldn’t it be easier if you
looked in the TV Guide instead of
driving me nuts?
Ann: I’m sorry, I don’t mean to get
on your nerves, but there’s
absolutely nothing on. Those trashy
news programs are
on every channel!
Wouldn’t it be easier if you looked in the
TV Guide instead of driving me nuts?
 Wouldn’t it be easier if you did sth. 表示建议
 Instead of 而不是 e.g. He will go instead of you. 他去,
不是你去。
比较:instead是副词,在句子中单独使用或用于句末
;instead of后面必须与名词、代词、动名词等一起使
用。例句:
He went to school by bike instead.
Instead of going home, he went to the cinema.
 drive sb nuts 使……烦,使……生气、难受
Long speech drives me nuts.冗长的讲话使我难受。
Loud music drives me nuts.吵闹的音乐使我难受。
I’m sorry, I don’t mean to get on your
nerves, but there’s absolutely nothing
on.
Mean to do sth 故意做某事 e.g.
I didn’t mean to hurt him.
get on sb’s nerves 使某人烦 ,与drive sb.
nuts同义。e.g.
You really get on my nerves.
 Rita: Wouldn’t it be easier if you looked in the
TV Guide instead of driving me nuts?
 Ann: I’m sorry, I don’t mean to get on your
nerves, but there’s absolutely nothing on.
Those trashy news programs are on every
channel!
 丽塔: 你看看《电视指南》是否更容易?这么换
频道弄得我头都大了。
 安: 抱歉,我无意烦你,但是确实没有什么可看
的,每个频道都是那些垃圾新闻节目。
Rita: I think Primetime Live is on right now.
That’s an informative program.
Ann: Oh, come on! All the news programs
are the same.
I think Primetime Live is on right now.
Primetime Live, now known as Primetime, is an
award-winning news magazine program of ABC
bringing in-depth investigative reports, crime
and human interest stories.
prime time: the hours between 7 and 11 p.m.
when the largest tv audience is available
黄金时段
on 上演,播出
 That’s an informative program.
informative 信息丰富的 e.g.
Well, this talk is most informative.
Oh, come on!
 come on在此表示责备或不耐烦等,意为:得啦;行啦;
够啦。如: Come on, don’t sit there dreaming. 得啦,别
坐在那儿空想了。
 其他用法:
表示请求、鼓励、劝说等。如: Come on, Lucy,
come on. Don’t be so shy. 露茜,来吧,别不好意思。
用来催促别人快走(做),意为:快点。如: Come on,
it’s getting dark. 快点,天要黑了。
用于挑战或激怒对方,意为:来吧;试试吧。如:
Come on! I’m not afraid of you. 来吧,我不会怕你的。
用于体育竞赛等场合鼓励队员,意为:加油。如:
"Come on! Come on!" shouted the audience again
and again. “加油!加油!”观点一再地喊。
翻译
Rita: I think Primetime Live is on right now.
That’s an informative program.
Ann: Oh, come on! All the news programs
are the same.
丽塔:我想《黄金时段直播》现在正在播出,
这个节目信息很丰富。
安:噢,得了吧,所有的新闻节目都一样。
 Rita: No way! They are totally different. I admit
some of them focus more on scandal than on
real news. But Primetime Live does cover
important stories.
 Ann: Like what?
 Rita: Well, stories on political figures,
government corruption, crime…
 Ann: The problem is the news presenters have
become more important than the news.
 Rita: What do you mean?
No way!... I admit some of them focus more on
scandal than on real news.
No way! 不行,没门,决不,不是这回事
A: Can you lend me 50 yuan?
B: No way! I lent 50 to you yesterday.
focus on 重点在于;集中在
The discussion focused on the new project.
more A than B: 肯定A否定B, 如:
This book seems to be more a manual than a
text.
Catherine is more diligent than intelligent.
But Primetime Live does cover important
stories.
does 助动词在本句中表示强调 e.g.
I saw him yesterday. / I did see him yesterady.
You need a new car. / You do need a new car.
cover: 涉及,包含
The news covers the murder yesterday.
This event will be covered live by TV. 此事将
由电视作现场报道。
stories on political figures, government
corruption, crime…
figure: n. 人物 e.g.
Michael Jordan is an iconic figure. 乔丹是偶像
式的人物。
corruption: n. 腐败
corrupt v.腐败 corruptive adj. 腐败的
crime: n. 罪行,犯罪
news presenter: a
person who presents
a news show on
television, radio or the
Internet 新闻播音员
Conversation:What
do you mean?
ask for clarification
(also known as
newsreader,
newscaster,
anchorman or
anchorwoman, news
anchor or simply
anchor)
 Rita: No way! They are totally different. I admit some of
them focus more on scandal than on real news. But
Primetime Live does cover important stories.
 Ann: Like what?
 Rita: Well, stories on political figures, government
corruption, crime…
 Ann: The problem is the news presenters have become
more important than the news.
 Rita: What do you mean?
 丽塔:才不是呢,完全不同。我承认,有些新闻节目更关注
丑闻而不是真正的新闻,但是《黄金时段直播》确实在关注
重要新闻。
 安:比如说?
 丽塔:各种新闻报道,比如政治人物、政府腐败、犯罪等等
。
 安:问题是新闻播报员已经比新闻更重要了。
 丽塔:你什么意思?
 Ann: The main goal of the networks is high
rating. To gain this they make the journalists
stars. Some anchors are so popular that people
are willing to believe anything they say, whether
accurate or not.
 Rita: But I don’t see anything wrong with it. After
all, they make the news interesting and credible
because of their charm.
 Ann: Yeah, but that’s why it’s impossible to
distinguish fact from fiction. In an era when
technology has made it possible to experience
events as they really happen, we are moving
away from the news.
The main goal of the networks is high rating. To
gain this they make the journalists stars.
high rating 高收视率
rating: evaluation or assessment
Ratings point is a measure of viewership of a
particular television program.
to gain this 动词不定式做目的状语
make the journalists stars
make sb. sth. 使某人成为…… e.g.
They made me monitor. 他们让我当班长。
Some anchors are so popular that people are
willing to believe anything they say, whether
accurate or not.
 anchor n. 新闻主播
 So…that…如此……以致
He’s so involved in reading that he did not notice the
ring on the door.
 be willing to do sth. 乐意做某事 e.g.
willing adj. 乐意的
He is always a willing helper. 他是一个乐于帮忙的人。
The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak. 心有余而力不
足。
I'd like to buy your house if you are willing to sell it. 如
果你愿意卖的话,我想买你的房子。
whether accruate or not 无论是否准确
whether … or not 是否 e.g.
I don‘t care whether he will come or not.
我不在乎他是否能来.
比较:whether or not 无论如何 e.g.
Whether or not he will never be able to forgive
me. 无论如何他都不能原谅我.
After all, they make the news interesting
and credible because of their charm.
 After all 毕竟
He did come after all!
He is quite human after all.
 make sth. + adj. 做宾语补足语
make me happy/ disappointed
 credible: adj. 可信的
 because of+ sth 因为……
The train was delayed because of the bad weather.
 charm: n. 魅力
… but that’s why it’s impossible to
distinguish fact from fiction.
why引导表语从句
distinguish fact from fiction
distinguish: v. 区分,表现突出
The twins were so much alike that it was
impossible to distinguish one from the
other. 这对孪生子像得使人无法分辨。
She distinguished herself by her coolness and
bravery. 她因头脑冷静、敢作敢为而为人称道。
fiction: n. 虚构
In an era when technology has made it possible to
experience events as they really happen, we are moving
away from the news.
In an era when… 此句中when引导定语从
句修饰表示时间的名词era
era: n. 时代
experience events as they really happen
对事物的体验好似真实发生一般
move away from 远离;变化
More and more people are moving away from
vegetarianism.
 Ann: The main goal of the networks is high rating. To gain this
they make the journalists stars. Some anchors are so popular
that people are willing to believe anything they say, whether
accurate or not.
 Rita: But I don’t see anything wrong with it. After all, they make
the news interesting and credible because of their charm.
 Ann: Yeah, but that’s why it’s impossible to distinguish fact from
fiction. In an era when technology has made it possible to
experience events as they really happen, we are moving away
from the news.
 安:电视台的主要宗旨就是提高收视率,为此他们把新闻记者变
成了明星。有些主持人非常受欢迎,无论准确与否,人们愿意相
信他们所说的一切。
 丽塔:可我不觉得这样有问题啊。不管怎样,因为他们的个人魅
力,他们让新闻有趣而且值得相信。
 安:对,但是,我们因此可能区分不了事实和虚构了。现在,科
技已经让我们把任何事件体验得像真实经历一样;在这样的时代
,我们背离了新闻。
Rita: We are moving away from the
traditional ways of presenting news. Do
you mind handing me the remote? I’ll
find something we can watch.
Ann: OK. Here you are. I’m in the mood
for something light and fun.
-- Do you mind handing me the remote?
--OK, here you are.
 conversation:Do you mind doing sth? 你介意
……吗?
Do you mind retiring earlier?
Do you mind taking the bus?
回答时若表示不介意,用否定的句型。若的确介意,直接
说yes。真题举例:
— Do you mind my smoking here?
C
— ____________
A. No, thanks.
B. Yes, I do.
C. Yes. I'd rather not.
D. Good idea.
 hand:v. 递给 hand sb. sth.
 remote: n. 遥控,即remote controller的简称。
I’m in the mood for something light and
fun.
mood n. 心情,情绪
in the mood for:乐意干某事
She's in a good mood today. 她今天心情很好.
She‘s too tired and in no mood for dancing. 她
太累了,没有心情跳舞。
I'm not in the mood to disagree with you. 我没
有心思跟你争论.
He's in no mood for (telling) jokes/to tell
jokes. 他没心情说笑话
翻译
 Rita: We are moving away from the traditional
ways of presenting news. Do you mind
handing me the remote? I’ll find something we
can watch.
 Ann: OK. Here you are. I’m in the mood for
something light and fun.
 丽塔:我们背离的是呈现新闻的传统方式。能否
让我拿一会儿遥控器?我来找一个我俩都能看的
节目。
 安:好吧,给你。我想看点儿轻松搞笑的节目。
Idiomatic Study
 Idiomatic study: Apologizing
 To apologize:
 I’m really/ very/ awfully sorry.
 Please forgive me.
 I (do) apologize.
 Responding to an apology:
 Don’t worry about it.
 That’s OK/ all right.
 No problem.
真题
 — I'm terribly sorry that I've spilled some coffee
on the carpet.
— ______________.
B
A. Sorry.
B. It doesn't matter.
C. That's right. D. Don't mention it.
 –Oh, sorry to bother you.
A
–__________________.
A. That’s Okay.
B. No, you can’t.
C. That’s good.
D. Oh, I don’t know.
Unit 8
Text B: Advertising
Background information
 Advertising is a form of communication
intended to persuade its viewers, readers or
listeners to take some action.
 It usually includes the name of a product or
service and how that product or service could
benefit the consumer, to persuade potential
customers to purchase or to consume that
particular brand.
 Modern advertising developed with the rise of
mass production in the late 19th and early 20th
centuries.
 Different types of media can be used to deliver
these messages, including traditional media
such as newspapers, magazines, television,
radio, billboards or direct mail.
 Virtually any medium can be used for
advertising.
 Celebrities: using celebrity power, fame, money,
popularity to gain recognition for their products
and promote specific stores or products.
 The use of celebrities to endorse a brand can
have its downsides, however. One mistake by a
celebrity can be detrimental to the public
relations of a brand.
 For example, following his performance of eight
gold medals at the 2008 Olympic Games in
Beijing, China, swimmer Michael Phelps'
contract with Kellogg's was terminated, as
Kellogg's did not want to associate with him after
he was photographed smoking marijuana.
Main idea
Para 1: Advertisements are made by
private mass media and they are almost
everywhere.
Para 2: What are advertisements?
Para 3: There are
five features of
advertisements.
Detailed-reading: paragraph 1
When you turn on the radio, you hear an
advertisement. When you watch television,
you hear and see an advertisement. If you
turn the pages of a newspaper or
magazine, again you find an
advertisement. If you walk down the street,
you see one advertising board after
another. All day, every day, people who
want to sell you something compete to
catch your attention.
If you walk down the street, you see one
advertising board after another.
advertising board
广告牌
One after another: 一个接一个 e.g.
 Visitors came one after another.
 One visitor came after another.
 One after another they achieved
independence.
All day, every day, people who want to sell you
something compete to catch your attention.
people who want to sell you something 定
语从句
Compete: v. to try to be more successful
than someone or something else 竞争 e.g.
Both girls compete for their father’s attention.
It's difficult for a small supermarket to compete
against/with the big supermarkets.
catch one’s attention 吸引某人注意
翻译
 When you turn on the radio, you hear an advertisement.
When you watch television, you hear and see an
advertisement. If you turn the pages of a newspaper or
magazine, again you find an advertisement. If you walk
down the street, you see one advertising board after
another. All day, every day, people who want to sell you
something compete to catch your attention.
 当你打开收音机,听到某则广告。当你看电视,听到看到
某广告。如果你翻开报纸或杂志的页面,你又发现广告。
如果你沿着街道走,你看到一个又一个的广告牌。一天到
晚,每一天,想要向你推销东西的人们争先恐后地吸引你
的注意
As a result, advertisements are almost
everywhere. In the West, advertisements
are the fuel that makes mass media work.
Many TV stations, newspapers,
magazines, radio stations are privately
owned. The government does not endorse
them. So where does the money come
from? From advertisements. Without
advertisements, there would be no private
businesses.
As a result, advertisements are almost
everywhere.
 As a result 结果 e.g.
As a result, daily output has doubled.
 advertisement: n. 广告 (a public promotion of
some product or service) e.g.
I suggest that he put an advertisement in the local
paper. 我建议他在当地的报纸上登条广告。
比较: advertising (the business of drawing public
attention to goods and services) e.g. The advertising
campaign didn't have much effect on sales. 这些广告攻
势对销售额并没有起到多大作用。
In the West, advertisements are the fuel
that makes mass media work.
 Fuel: n. a substance which is used to provide
heat or power, usually by being burned 燃料,动
力 e.g.
Wood, coal, oil, petrol and gas are all different kinds of
fuel.
The newspaper article provided him with fuel for his
speech. 报纸上的这篇文章为他的演讲提供了启发。
 mass media: a section of the media specifically
designed to reach a very large audience such as
the population of a nation state.大众传媒
Many TV stations, newspapers, magazines, radio
stations are privately owned.
Privately: adv. by a person or company
and not by the government 私人的
privately owned 私有的 e.g.
 a privately-owned business 私营企业
 a privately financed project 私人筹措资金项目
The government does not endorse them.
Endorse: v. to make a public statement of
your approval or support for something or
someone 支持、赞同、背书于 e.g.
 to endorse a political candidate. 支持政治候选
人
 I am afraid I can't endorse your opinion. 很抱
歉,我不赞成你的意见。
Without advertisements, there would be
no private businesses.
 从would be的用法可以看出本句是虚拟语气,其
中Without advertisements相当于If there were no
advertisements
用“without/but for/in the absence of ”表示 “要不是”
、“如果没有”(相当于if it were not for…)表示条件时
,句中一般用虚拟语气
e.g. Without air, nothing could live.要是没有空气,什么也
不能生存。
But for your assistance, we could not accomplish it.要不
是你的帮忙,我们是难有成就的。
 private business 私营企业
翻译
 As a result, advertisements are almost everywhere.
In the West, advertisements are the fuel that makes
mass media work. Many TV stations, newspapers,
magazines, radio stations are privately owned. The
government does not endorse them. So where does
the money come from? From advertisements.
Without advertisements, there would be no private
businesses.
 因此,广告几乎无所不在。在西方,广告是推动大众
传媒运作的燃料。许多电视台、报纸、杂志、电台都
是私人所有,政府不给他们经费。那么他们的经费从
何而来?来自于广告。如果没有广告,就不会有这些
私营企业。
Paragraph 2
Have you ever asked yourself what
advertising is? Through the years, people
have given different answers to the
question. For some time it was felt that
advertising was a means of “keeping your
name before the public”, and some people
thought that advertising was “truth well
told”.
Have you ever asked yourself what
advertising is?
 have ever asked 现在完成时
ever ad. 曾经,永远,究竟 e.g.
I wondered if he'd ever stopped to think how I felt. 我不
知道他是否曾考虑过我的感受。
 本句中 what 引导宾语从句
宾语从句的连接代词主要有who, whom ,whose ,what,
whoever ,whomever ,whosever, whatever, whichever等.
e.g.
Do you know who has won the game? 你知道谁赢了这
一局游戏吗?
I don’t know whom you should depend on. 我不知道你该
依靠谁.
Through the years, people have given
different answers to the question.
Through: from the beginning to the end of
a period of time e.g.
It rained all/right through June and into the first
half of July.
She had just enough energy to get through the
day.
For some time it was felt that advertising was a
means of “keeping your name before the public”,
for some time 有一段时间,一度
it was felt that中it做形式主语,真正主语是
that从句
a means of: a method or way of doing
something
They had no means of communication.
The family had no means of support.
翻译
 Have you ever asked yourself what advertising
is? Through the years, people have given
different answers to the question. For some time
it was felt that advertising was a means of
“keeping your name before the public”, and
some people thought that advertising was “truth
well told”.
 你是否曾问过自己什么是广告?多年来,人们已
经对这一问题赋予了不同的答案。人们曾一度认
为广告是一种“让你的名字被公众关注”的手段
,有些人认为广告是“被恰如其分表露出的真相
”。
Now, more and more people perceive it in
this way: advertising is the paid, nonpersonal, and usually persuasive
presentation of goods, services and ideas
by some certain sponsors through various
media.
Now, more and more people perceive it in
this way…
more and moer 越来越多
Perceive: v. to come to an opinion about
something, or have a belief about
something 察觉, 感觉, 认知, 理解 e.g.
 I perceived a change in his behaviour/that his
behaviour had changed. 我发觉他的行为有些
变化.
Women's magazines are often perceived to be
superficial.
… advertising is the paid, non-personal, and usually
persuasive presentation of goods, services and ideas by
some certain sponsors through various media.
non-personal 非个人的
persuasive: adj. making you want to do or
believe a particular thing 劝说性的 e.g.
 a persuasive speaker/speech
 Your arguments are very persuasive.
Sponsor 赞助商 e.g.
All the major theatres now have sponsors,
especially for high-cost productions.
翻译
 Now, more and more people perceive it in this
way: advertising is the paid, non-personal, and
usually persuasive presentation of goods,
services and ideas by some certain sponsors
through various media.
 现在,越来越多的人这样看待该问题:广告是某
些赞助商支付费用,通过不同的媒体对商品、服
务和观念的呈现,该呈现非个人化,而且通常是
劝说性的。
Paragraph 3
First, advertising is usually paid for.
Various sponsors pay for the
advertisements we see, read, and hear
over various media. Second, advertising is
non-personal. It is not face-to-face
communication. Although you may feel
that a message in a certain advertisement
is aimed directly at you, in reality, it is
directed at large groups of people.
First, advertising is usually paid for.
pay for 付款,支付 e.g.
We will pay for houses by monthly
instalments. 我们将按月分期付款买房。
You get what you pay for. 一分钱一分货。
They asked him to pay for the damage but he
pleaded poverty. 他们要他付损害赔偿金, 但他
藉口贫穷而不偿还.
It is not face-to-face communication.
face-to-face: 面对面地
E.g. They were standing quarreling face to
face.

The two candidates will debate face
to face.

Although you may feel that a message in a certain
advertisement is aimed directly at you, in reality, it is
directed at large groups of people.
 aim at/ direct at 瞄准,针对,以……为目标 e.g.
The factory must aim at increasing production.
We must aim at increasing/to increase exports.
 in reality ad. 实际上(事实上)
One‘s school life seems happier in retrospect than in
reality. 人们的学校生活回想起来要比实际上的快乐。
It seems as if he knew everything, but in reality, he is
as stupid as can be. 他似乎是个万事通。其实他是再愚
蠢不过了。
翻译
 First, advertising is usually paid for. Various sponsors
pay for the advertisements we see, read, and hear over
various media. Second, advertising is non-personal. It is
not face-to-face communication. Although you may feel
that a message in a certain advertisement is aimed
directly at you, in reality, it is directed at large groups of
people.
 首先,广告通常是付费的。各种各样的赞助商为我们在各
种媒体上看到、读到和听到的广告付费。第二,广告是非
个人化的,它不是面对面的交流。尽管你可能感到某个广
告中的一条信息是直接针对你而发的,事实上,其目标在
于大规模的人群。
Third, advertising is usually persuasive.
Directly or indirectly it asks people to do
something. All advertisements try to make
people believe that the product, idea, or
service advertised can benefit them.
Fourth, the sponsors of the advertisement
must show their names. From the
advertisement, we can see if the sponsor
is a company, or an individual.
All advertisements try to make people believe that the
product, idea, or service advertised can benefit them.
 make sb do sth 使某人做某事(役使动词后省略
to的动词不定式)
 The teacher made the students read by themselves.
 advertised此处为动词过去分词做定语,修饰前面
的product/ idea/ service,表示被动
 benefit: v. to be helped by something or to help
someone e.g.
I feel that I have benefited greatly from her wisdom.
How can we benefit those who most need our help?
From the advertisement, we can see if the
sponsor is a company, or an individual.
we can see if…此句中if引导宾语从句,表
示 “是否”
Individual: n. a single person or thing,
especially when compared to the group or
set to which they belong 个人
Every individual has rights which must never be
taken away.
 We’d better treat our students as individuals.
翻译
 Third, advertising is usually persuasive. Directly or
indirectly it asks people to do something. All
advertisements try to make people believe that the
product, idea, or service advertised can benefit them.
Fourth, the sponsors of the advertisement must show
their names. From the advertisement, we can see if the
sponsor is a company, or an individual.
 第三,广告通常是劝说性的。或直接或间接,广告要求人
们做一些事情。所有的广告都试图让人们相信广告宣传的
产品、观念或服务能够令人获益。第四,广告的赞助商必
须呈现他们的名字。从广告中我们能够看到其赞助商是一
个公司或是个人。
Fifth, advertising reaches us through
traditional and modem mass media.
Included in the traditional media are
newspapers, magazines, radio, television,
and films. Modern media include emails,
matchbox covers, and boards on top of
buildings.
Included in the traditional media are newspapers,
magazines, radio, television, and films.
 句型:倒装
Newspapers, magazines, radiao,
television, and films are included in the
traditional media.
Modern media include emails, matchbox
covers, and boards on top of buildings.
email 电子邮件
Matchbox: a small box containing matches
火柴盒
matchbox cover 火柴盒贴,火柴盒封面
Board: n. a thin flat piece of cut wood or
other hard material used for a particular
purpose 广告牌
E.g. There was a 'For Sale' board outside
the house.
翻译
 Fifth, advertising reaches us through traditional
and modem mass media. Included in the
traditional media are newspapers, magazines,
radio, television, and films. Modern media include
emails, matchbox covers, and boards on top of
buildings.
 第五,广告通过传统和现代的大众传媒影响我们。
传统媒体包括报纸、杂志、电台、电视和电影;现
代媒体包括电子邮件、火柴盒封面和高楼顶端的广
告牌。
Unit 8
Text B: Advertising
Comprehension Questions:
1. The existence of the privately owned
mass media depends on the support
of_____.
A. the government B. their owners’ families
C. advertisers
D. the TV stations
P1:Many TV stations, newspapers, magazines, radio
stations are privately owned. The government does not
endorse them. So where does the money come from?
From advertisements. Without advertisements, there
would be no private businesses.
2. According to the passage, different definitions of
advertising are given due to _______.
A. the change of time
B. the subject of the advertisements
C. people’ age difference
D. different ways of making advertisements
P2:Through the years, people have given different answers
to the question. For some time it was felt that advertising
was a means of “keeping your name before the public”…
Now, more and more people perceive it in this way: ….
 3. Which of the following is true about people’s
understanding of advertising now?
A. The purpose of advertising is to make people
known by the public.
B. Advertising should be targeted at certain
individuals.
C. The purpose of advertising is to make people
believe in something.
D. Advertising should tell true stories in an
attractive way.
P3: All advertisements try to make people believe
that the product, idea, or service advertised can
benefit them.
Second, advertising is non-personal….it is
directed at large groups of people.
 4. We know from the context “sponsor” means
_______________.
A. the one who launches a certain program
B. the one who pays for media in return for
advertising
C. the one who assumes responsibility for
advertising
D. the one who support a candidate
P3: First, advertising is usually paid for. Various
sponsors pay for the advertisements we see, read,
and hear over various media.
5. The last paragraph is mainly about
____________________.
A. various types of media for advertising
B. features of advertising
C. advertising and communication
D. targets of advertising
I. Conversation
1. — Would you mind changing seats with
me?
— ____________________.
A. Yes, you can.
B. Of course, I like to.
C. No, I don’t mind. D. Certainly, please do.
 2.— I’m sorry. I lost the key.

— ______________.

A. Well, it’s OK.

B. No, it’s all right.

C. You are welcome.

D. You are wrong.
 3. — It’s rather cold here. Do you mind if
I close the window?

— _________________.
 A. Yes, please.
B. No, go ahead.

C. Sure, please.
D. I don’t like it.
4.— Do you mind my smoking here?
— ____________________.
A. No, thanks. B. Yes, I do.
C. Yes. Why not? D. Good idea.
5.— Could you be so kind as to turn down
the music? I’m preparing for tomorrow’s
exam.
— _________________.
A. It’s none of your business.
B. What are you doing?
C. Sure. Sorry to disturb you.
D. No, I don’t think so.
Part 2: Reading Comprehension
The mass media influences all aspects of
our lives, including the learning of gender
roles. Newspapers and magazines,
television, and film all have an influence
on how we view the roles of women and
men and on how we think they should
behave.
Four decades ago, traditional women’s
magazines such as Good Housekeeping
and Family Circle talked to women as
though they were children who needed to
learn the basics of how to care for their
families. Today, magazines do not do this.
However, they still tend to define the
female role in terms of homemaking and
motherhood, and to offer beauty advice to
help women attract men and please
husbands. There are now a few less
traditional magazines such as Ms. that
show women in a range of roles and that
cover a much wider range of topics.
Television commercials have also, until
recently, presented women primarily as sex
objects and as housewives. Young sexy
women were shown admiring older men
who smoked a particular cigarette brand.
Housewives were shown smiling joyfully
about their clean bathrooms, or looking
guilty for not using the right laundry soap to
wash their husband’s clothes.
These days advertisers are more careful
about the way they present women, and
they are presented in a variety of roles.
However, it is still quite common to see
advertisements where beautiful young
women are dressed in sexy clothes to sell
cars or other products. One study also
found that the changes are mainly on
nighttime television, with daytime
commercials still tending to portray women
doing household chores.
Prime-time television programs also often
used to stereotype women. In past
decades, women were usually portrayed
as lovers, as mothers, or as weak,
passive girlfriends of powerful, effective
men. Today’s TV programs are somewhat
different.
Women are more likely to be presented as
successful and able to support themselves
and their families, but the traditional
stereotypes of women are still there. Even
when women are depicted as career
women, the storylines suggest that they
should be sexy as well.
1. The best title for this passage is
_________________.
A. Gender Roles in the Media
B. Influence of Mass Media in Our Lives
C. Different Types of Media
D. Women’s Magazines and Televisions
2. What makes Ms. different from other women’s
magazines?
A. Ms. offers women tips of caring for their families.
B. Ms. treats women as adults who need to learn about
being a mother.
C. Ms. is interested in a wider range of women’s role.
D. Ms. is the type of women’s magazines that dominates
now.
P2: There are now a few less traditional magazines such
as Ms. that show women in a range of roles and that
cover a much wider range of topics.
3. It can be inferred that ____________ might be
a new type of women image on the television
commercials.
A. young beautiful women dressed in sexy clothes
B. happy mothers doing the household chores
C. guilty wives who don’t use the right soap
D. career women who enjoys her career success
P3: it is still quite common to see advertisements where beautiful young
women are dressed in sexy clothes to sell cars or other products.
Housewives were shown smiling joyfully about their clean bathrooms, or
looking guilty for not using the right laundry soap to wash their
husband’s clothes.
4. From the context we know “to stereotype
women” (Line 1, Paragraph 4) refers to
______________.
A. to tag on women some fixed roles and images
B. to portray women in some different ways
C. to depict women as successful and able to support
themselves
D. to portray women as successful professionals
P4: Prime-time television programs also often used to stereotype women.
5. Which of the following statement do you think
the writer would least agree with in terms of
the media’s attitude towards women?
A. The mass media always presents to us a variety of
women images as they are in daily life.
B. The mass media focuses women’s roles in life as a
mother more than as a professional.
C. The way mass media define women has changed as
time goes by.
D. The limited images of women mass media presented to
the audience have influenced the way the audience
think and behave.
III. Vocabulary and Structure
1. The company is going through a
________ time at the moment.
A. rough B. tight C. tough D. strong
2. Do you think there’s such a thing as
_________ truth?
A. absolute
B. extreme
C. perfect
D. pure
3. We hope to be more ________ in
predicting earthquake.
A. clear
B. factual
C. capable
D. accurate
4. I sometimes have difficulty
____________ French from Italian.
A. to distinguish
B. being distinguished
C. distinguishing
D. distinguish
5. Leave me alone. I’m _____ no mood for
chatting.
A. in B. on C. at
D. with
6. They created one new record
__________ another..
A. with B. behind C. on
D. after
7. — When shall we meet?
— _____ it any day you like. It’s all the
same to me.
A. Do
B. Get
C. Meet D. Make
8. Although he did not know London well,
he made his way ________ to the
airport.
A. easy enough
B. enough easy
C. easily enough
D. enough easily
9. It’s said that _________ boys in your
school like playing football in their spare
time, though others prefer basketball.
A. quite a lot B. quite a few
C. quite a bit D. quite a little
10. While I was at the university, I learned to
take photos, _______ is now very useful
for me.
A. it
B. which C. that
D. what
College English
Unit 8
Exercises
IV. Cloze
Think about television, radio, newspapers,
the Internet — even T-shirts. We are
exposed to __1__ media-generated
messages in one day than our great
grandparents were in a year.
__2__ from the media is built just as
buildings and highways are __3__ : a plan
is made, the building blocks are gathered
and people get paid to do different jobs.
__4__ we are watching the news on TV,
passing a billboard on the street or reading
a pop music magazine, the media
messages we experience were written by
someone (or probably many people).
Images were taken and edited, and a team
with many talents put it all together.
 During the process, __5__ are made. If some
words are added, others are edited out; if one
picture is __6__ , dozens may have been
rejected; if an ending to a story is written one
way, other endings may not have been explored.
 As the audience, we don’t get to see or hear the
words, pictures or endings that were rejected.
We only see, hear or read what was __7__. Nor
does anybody ever explain why certain choices
were made.
The result is that whatever is "made" by
just a few people becomes " normal " for
the __8__ of us. Like the air we breathe,
the media is taken for granted and their
messages can go unquestioned.
The __9__ of media messages depends
on how natural they are. We turn off a TV
show that looks unnatural. But the truth is,
it's all __10__ by people.
 Think about television, radio, newspapers, the Internet — even
T-shirts. We are exposed to __1__ media-generated messages
in one day than our great grandparents were in a year.
 __2__ from the media is built just as buildings and highways
are __3__ : a plan is made, the building blocks are gathered
and people get paid to do different jobs.
 1.
 2.
 3.
A. enough B. more C. interesting D. boring
A. Information B. Influence C. Word D. Resource
A. put together B. taking shape C. made up D. worked out
 __4__ we are watching the news on TV, passing
a billboard on the street or reading a pop music
magazine, the media messages we experience
were written by someone (or probably many
people). Images were taken and edited, and a
team with many talents put it all together.
 4. A. Whether B. If C. When D. Unless
 During the process, __5__ are made. If some
words are added, others are edited out; if one
picture is __6__ , dozens may have been rejected;
if an ending to a story is written one way, other
endings may not have been explored.
 5. A. plans B. stories C. choices
 6. A. taken B. enlarged C. painted
D. products
D. selected
As the audience, we don’t get to see or hear
the words, pictures or endings that were
rejected. We only see, hear or read what was
__7__. Nor does anybody ever explain why
certain choices were made.
7. A. decided
C. done
B. said
D. known
The result is that whatever is "made" by
just a few people becomes " normal " for
the __8__ of us. Like the air we breathe,
the media is taken for granted and their
messages can go unquestioned.
8. A. other B. rest
C. all
D. lots
 The __9__ of media messages depends on how
natural they are. We turn off a TV show that looks
unnatural. But the truth is, it's all __10__ by
people.
 9. A. understanding
B. success
C. effect
D. work
 10. A. made up
B. worked up
C. put up
D. set up
V. Translation:Put the following
sentences into Chinese.
 1. All day, every day, people who want to
sell you something compete to catch
your attention.
一天到晚,每一天,想要向你推销东西的
人们争先恐后地吸引你的注意力。
 2. In the West, advertisements are the
fuel that makes mass media work.
在西方,广告是推动大众传媒运作的燃料。
 3. Through the years, people have given
different answers to the question.
多年来,人们已经对这一问题赋予了不同的答案。
 4. Although you may feel that a message
in a certain advertisement is aimed
directly at you, in reality, it is directed at
large groups of people.
尽管你可能感到某个广告中的一条信息是直接
针对你而发的,事实上,其目标在于大规模
的人群。
 5. From the advertisement, we can see if
the sponsor is a company, or an
individual.
从广告中我们能够看到其赞助商是一个公司或
是个人。
VI. Writing
You are required to write a composition on
the topic “Media and Shopping” with no
less than 80 words based on the outline
given below.
1. 通过媒体购物逐渐成为一种普遍现象;
2. 媒体购物给人们带来很多方便,同时也
暴露出其弊端;
3. 我的看法。
Sample
Nowadays, an increasing number of
people are fond of purchasing goods with
the help of media, such as newspapers,
radio stations, TV stations and the
Internet.



On the one hand, shopping via media
saves time, money and effort, since we do
not have to go to the shops in person. On
the other hand, there is the risk of being
cheated by the false information and thus
we may suffer a considerable loss.

As far as I am concerned, we need
strengthened supervision over the
information released via media. In this
way, we can reap the benefits while
reducing the possible harm.
Additional Information: Mass Media
Mass media denotes a section of the
media specifically designed to reach a
very large audience such as the
population of a nation state.
The term public media has a similar
meaning: it is the sum of the public mass
distributors of news and entertainment
across media such as newspapers,
television, radio, broadcasting.
Mass media includes Internet media (like
blogs, message boards, and video
sharing) because individuals now have a
means to exposure that is comparable in
scale to that previously restricted to a
select group of mass media producers.
Mass media can be used for various
purposes:
 Advocacy, both for business and social
concerns. This can include advertising,
marketing, propaganda, public relations, and
political communication.
 Entertainment, traditionally through
performances of acting, music, and sports, along
with light reading; since the late 20th century
also through video and computer games.
 Public service announcements.
Electronic media and print media include:
 Broadcasting, in the narrow sense, for radio and
television.
 Various types of discs or tapes. In the 20th
century, these were mainly used for music.
Video and computer uses followed.
 Film, most often used for entertainment, but also
for documentaries.
 Internet, which has many uses and presents
both opportunities and challenges. Blogs and
podcasts (such as news, music, pre-recorded
speech, and video)
Non-mass or "personal" media
point-to-point and person-to-person
communication
 include:
Gestures
Interactive
Internet
Mail
Speech
Mobile phones, often called the 7th Mass
Media, used for rapid breaking news, short
clips of entertainment like jokes,
horoscopes, alerts, games, music, and
advertising
Publishing, including electronic publishing
Video games, which have developed into
a mass form of media since cutting-edge
devices broadened their use.
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