MUSLIM EMPIRES DBQ EXAMPLES OF HIGH-QUALITY THESIS STATEMENTS, POV, ADDT’L DOC REQUESTS, AND TOPIC SENTENCES… Comp Theses: Islamic Gunpowder Empires From 1450-1750 both the Mughal and Ottoman Empires established large functioning bureaucracies through the establishment of religiously tolerant policies over large non-Muslim groups, both will grow wealthy due to the control over lucrative trade routes, however, predominantly Hindu Mughal will have advisors of government of many faiths while the Millet system of religious enclaves (communities) will be the closest any non-Muslims have in governmental decision-making The Ottoman and Safavid Empires 1450-1750 were both Turkic lead assaults for empire establishment after the vacuum of authority the Mongols built, both will be dominated by Islamic rule ( Sharia,5 Pillars,Hadith) but the Sunni led Ottoman will be far more tolerant than the Shiite led Safavid eventually going to war and signifying the beginning of the end for the Safavid. Trade & DEMOGRAPHY Agriculture: the basis of all three empires – Major crops: wheat, rice – Little impacted by new American crops Imports of coffee, tobacco very popular – Coffee discovered in Jaffa Province (Ethiopia) – Coffee houses developed, a major social tradition Peasants – Tended to be overtaxed, overworked by nobles – Many so mistreated that they abandoned their lands Demographics – Population growth less dramatic than in China, Europe • India: significant growth due to intense agriculture • Less dramatic growth in Safavid and Ottoman empires – All empires were multi-national, multi-religious Trade – Long-distance trade important to all three empires • Minorities controlled trade in all three states in trade diasporas • Trade goods tended to be traditional arts, crafts; little manufacturing • Ottomans, Safavids shared parts of east-west trade routes – Safavids offered silk, carpets, ceramics to Europeans – Mughal empires less attentive to foreign or maritime trading • Mughals permitted stations for English, French, Dutch • Europeans gradually exclude Indian influence culture Sponsored arts and public works – Golden Age of Islamic art, architecture – Mosques, palaces, schools, hospitals, caravanserais Istanbul – Ottoman capital, a bustling city of a million people – Topkapi palace housed government, sultan's residence – Suleyman blended Islamic, Byzantine architecture Isfahan – Safavid capital – The "queen of Persian cities“ – The central mosque is a wonder of architecture Fatehpur Sikri, Mughal capital, created by Akbar – Combined Islamic style with Indian elements – Site abandoned because of bad water supply – Taj Mahal, exquisite example of Mughal architecture Decline of gunpowder empires – – – – – – – Dynastic decline • • • • • • • Caused by negligent rulers, factions Constant competition between factions within government Former elite military units often became threats Government corruption Bribery became way of doing business Many officials pocketed taxes, overtaxed, etc. Harem politics Rulers raised in harems let sex carry them away Rulers took to drinking, partying too much Rulers’ mothers, wives jockeyed for position, sons Tensions increased • • • • • • • • Religious conservatives abandoned tolerance Ottoman conservatives Resisted innovations like the telescope, printing press Resisted western military innovations, industrialization Discouraged merchants, commercialism Safavid Empire Shiite leaders urged shahs to persecute Sunnis Non-Muslims lost many protections Mughal India Aurangzeb's policies provoked deep animosity of Hindus Rise of Sikhs Rise of Christians with coming of Europeans CULTURAL INSULARITY Cultural conservatism – – – – Muslims seldom traveled to the West, confident of their superiority Science, technology ignored as it is western, threat Ignorant of European technological developments Hostile to European, Christian inventions, institutions Social conservatism – – – Middle classes failed to develop in Muslim states Growing gap between ruling elite, peasants/slaves Growing antagonism between religious elites, ruling elites Resistance to printing press – – – At first, Ottomans banned printing in Turkish, Arabic Ban lifted in 1729; conservatives closed Turkish press in 1742 In India, Mughals showed little interest in printing technology Xenophobia becomes a cultural trait of Islam – – – – Foreign cultural innovations seen as a threat to political stability Inability to grasp aspects of modern politics, state structures Muslims cannot believe what is happening to them More irritating that it is the Christian Europeans who are ruling REASONS FOR DECLINE Economy and Military Expansion Series of long and costly wars with no financial support – Economy Stagnated by 18th century • Officials resorted to raising taxes to deal with financial problems • Official, unofficial corruption lost millions in revenue to state – Failure to develop trade and industry Military decline – Imported European weapons but never made their own – Arsenals outdated; tactics outdated; systems outdated – Ottoman Empire • Even purchased military vessels from abroad • Europeans developed extremely modern militaries – India • Mughals refused to build a navy, let Europeans rule seas • Led to loss of Mughal provinces • Local princes, rulers assumed control, defied Mughals Rise of Banditry, Piracy – In countryside, many poor peasants took to banditry – On seas, many ports and merchants too to piracy – Trade disrupted, made Europeans mad who often retaliated GOOD THESIS “Documents 1, 2 and 3 and discuss the militaristic political climate of the [Gunpowder] Empires c. 1450-1750, while documents 4 and 8describe the tolerant religious climate of the [Gunpowder] Empires, and documents 5,6, and 7 display the religiously intolerant climate of the empires.” GOOD THESIS “While the overall political and religious climates of the Muslim Empires in 1450-1750 were tense, religious tolerance can be seen in the Mughal and Ottoman Empires.” GOOD THESIS “The political and religious climate of the Muslim Empires in c. 1450-1750 was very tense…The military was needed to support the government and to back up political decisions, while the religious tension was a result of the close proximity of various religious groups.” GOOD THESIS, AND GOOD TOPIC SENTENCES “Documents 3 and 4 and 8 portray a tolerant religious climate throughout the Muslim Empires c. 1450-1750, while documents 4, 5, 6 and 7show an intolerant religious climate. Documents 4 and 5 show a diverse religious climate. 5 portray a tense political climate.” GOOD POV :”How and why is this document biased?” “Document 7 is taken from the perspective of a missionary who traveled to the Safavid Empire in order to convert others to Christianity. However, the missionary failed and upon his return to Spain, brought along with him the point of view that all those of the Safavid Empire were rude, inconsiderate, and [disingenuous] peoples who merely feigned appreciation of the Spanish missionaries. This perspective is taken, of course, only because the missionary was unsuccessful.” GOOD POV “Doc 1 shows how the Muslims didn’t like the Christian missionaries. However, Father Simon may have exaggerated the Muslims’ hostility because he was making excuses for his mission’s failure.” GOOD POV “Document 7, which is about the Safavid empire, shows the ruler Shah Abbas’s disrespect for Christian traditions… However, coming from a group that was a minority in the Safavid Empire, Father Simon, the author of Document 3 , probably felt that the Muslim shah was more oppressive than he actually was… Because Father Simon came to the Safavid Empire to explore missionary work, it is clear that he viewed Muslims as wrong and thus would have been more critical of Islamic rule.” PROBABLY, OR ALMOST THERE POV… “Document 4 also discusses the role of religion in regard to the political climate of the Mughal Empire, but is written by one of the emperors, and thus could be biased when he describes how his father was so tolerant of the Hindus.” – Jahangir may have exaggerated Akbar’s level of tolerance, because he would have wanted to positively portray his Muslim family to his Hindu subjects (especially given the tense religious climate in the Mughal Empire). GOOD ADDT’L DOC “Another document, which would be helpful in further understanding the religious climate of the Muslim empires from 1450-1750, would be an account written by an indigenous follower of Judaism (or some religious minority). This would give us information about how such minorities adapted to the changes in religious climate and what their perspective was on larger religions which may or may not have oppressed them and their faith.” GOOD ADDT’L DOC “It would be helpful to have a document pertaining to the perspective of the Hindus. All of the documents were written by people outside of the empire or a government official but not from the opinion of a Hindu. Considering that many documents discuss being tolerant to them, it would be interesting to hear from the subjects about that tolerance. A survey asking the Hindus if they believed they were being treated fairly would be helpful. That way you could compare the points of views to decide which is the more accurate. Considering that the Hindus were the majority in the Mughal empire, it would be a helpful document to understand the actual relationship between the Hindus and the Muslims. Another one … An additional document that would be helpful in better understanding the political and economic climate of the Muslim empires would be that of a government official working inside of the Safavid Empire. Right now, the only perspective on the Safavid Empire that we have is that of a disaffected Christian missionary. A more formal document from someone in the government could better help us to determine whether or not the government did in fact discriminate against religious minorities, thus creating a hostile religious climate, or if it was more open minded than the author of document 3 is letting on.