The Mongols and Genghis Khan Genghis Khan Kublai Khan (Grandson of Genghis) The Pax Mongolica (Mongol Peace) • Under Mongol control, trade flourished throughout Eurasia. • The old trade networks were revived and travel through these networks was considered to be very safe. Marco Polo How did Marco Polo’s journey help inspire Europeans to think Globally? • Marco Polo’s accounts of his adventures through Eurasia, revealed how advanced and luxurious the east had become. These accounts aroused Europeans curiosity about the east and created a desire for the luxuries he had described. The Gunpowder Empires (~1450-1650) What happens when an empire has access to technology which other people don’t possess? Gunpowder Empires Empires which arose in Islamic Eurasia, which possessed new technology (cannons, muskets, etc.) which helped them control large and diverse empires with powerful centralized governments. 3 Main Gunpowder Empires • The Ottoman Empire • The Safavid Empire • The Mughal (Moghal) Empire The Ottomans • Turkish nomadic people from Central Asia (like the Seljuk Turks). • Expanded through Asia Minor. • 1453 – Used cannons to blast holes in Constantinople’s defenses and capture it. Renamed it Istanbul. The Ottoman Empire • The Ottomans established an empire which would last off and on until World War I ended (1918). • Adopted Sunni Islam as their religious and government (Sharia law) organization. • Very tolerant of the many religious groups within their empire. (Jews, Christians, etc.) • Controlled the link between European and Asian trade. The Janizaries The Safavid Empire (Early 1500’s – 1722) • Controlled much of the old Persian empire. (modern day Iran) • Sandwiched between the other two Gunpowder empires. • Also Muslim, but Shiites. – Led to conflicts between them and their Ottoman Sunni neighbors. Controlled the highly demanded silk trade. • Non tolerance of other religions led to rebellions which would eventually end the Safavid empire. • However, Iran is still a strongly Shiite controlled nation. The Mughal Empire (1526-1857) • Modern day India, Pakistan, and parts of Afghanistan. • Muslim armies had moved into the Indus Valley in AD 711. • Established Muslim Sultanates. (Sultans = Muslim rulers) Muslim and Hindus Clash • Obvious differences between Hindus and Muslims led to religious clashes. – However, many Hindus converted to Islam to escape the caste system. – 1526 – Muslim Mongol and Turkish armies moved in and established the Mughal Empire. (Mughal = Persian for Mongol). – Mughal leaders controlled the lucrative and important Indian trade. 1947 - Pakistan is created due to tensions between Muslims and Hindus. 1971 Civil War turns east Pakistan into Bangladesh. Overarching Question?? • How did the establishment of the Islamic Gunpowder Empires affect Europeans? – These new and powerful empires controlled all of the key overland trade routes from Asia to Europe. • The Ottomans controlled the ends of the routes. • The Safavids controlled the Silk road and thus the Silk trade. • The Mughals controlled the important Indian trade. • If European Christians wanted the luxuries of the east, they would have to go through the Muslim middle-men.