Chapter Introduction Section 1: History and Governments Section 2: Cultures and Lifestyles Visual Summary Place Every day we use items invented in East Asia and Southeast Asia—such as the paper money we use to buy goods. Today, the region influences the world through the products it exports. How can trade influence the ideas and lifestyles of cultures? Section 1: History and Governments Patterns of economic activities result in global interdependence. Powerful local empires ruled early East Asia and Southeast Asia. Europeans seeking the region’s resources gained control of much of the area beginning in the 1500s. By the mid-900s, most Asian countries had gained independence. Today, several nations in East Asia and Southeast Asia have developed strong economies. Section 2: Cultures and Lifestyles Culture influences people’s perceptions about places and regions. Rapid population growth has created challenges for many countries in the region. Traditional beliefs and practices have influenced daily life, but the region has also been affected by modern technology and Western culture. Patterns of economic activities result in global interdependence. Content Vocabulary • dynasty • samurai • porcelain • sphere of influence • census • novel • free port • shogun Academic Vocabulary • emerge • dominate A geisha may be Japan’s most recognized symbol. Geisha means “artful person.” For over 200 years, geisha have kept traditional Japanese culture alive. Geisha wear formal Japanese clothing. They learn to play the shamisen, a traditional three-stringed instrument that is similar to the banjo. Geisha also study calligraphy, dance, traditional poetry, and songs. You can learn more about the history of Japan by reading Section 1. Do you believe China should limit Western influences within its country? A. Yes B. No C. Maybe D. Don’t know 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Vietnam is becoming an “Asian Tiger.” Having recently passed the $5.5 billion mark in exports to the United States, Vietnam is now considered an Asian Tiger. One of the many promising features of Vietnam’s economic growth is the return of citizens who as children left the country during the Vietnam War. Bringing back education and business experience, they are a valuable and welcome resource in Vietnam’s new success. Asian Empires Dynasties ruled large empires in East Asia and Southeast Asia. Asian Empires (cont.) • China’s civilization began more than 4,000 years ago in the Huang He valley. • Until the early 1900s, emperors of a dynasty, or line of rulers from a single family, would hold power until overthrown and a new leader started a new dynasty. Dynasties of China Asian Empires (cont.) • Han dynasty rulers encouraged overland trade on the Silk Road—a large trading network stretching from China to Southwest Asia. • The Chinese sent silk, tea, spices, paper, and porcelain as far as the Mediterranean world and received gold, silver, precious stones, and fine woods from other countries. Dynasties of China Asian Empires (cont.) • Later, China’s Tang and Song rulers built roads and waterways that made travel and trade within China easier, and they improved food production, resulting in an increase in China’s population. • Also during these periods, the Chinese created steel and gunpowder, developed a printing process, and invented the compass, used in sailing. Dynasties of China Asian Empires (cont.) • In 1211, Mongol warriors from Central Asia conquered most of China. – Mongol rulers kept their own language, laws, and customs but relied on Chinese officials to run the government. – Mongol rule unified China. Dynasties of China Asian Empires (cont.) • In the late 1300s, the Chinese drove out the Mongols, and the Ming dynasty arose. – Among the Ming accomplishments was the creation of a census, or a count of the number of people, to collect taxes more accurately. – Under the Ming, the Chinese staged dramas and wrote novels, or long fictional stories. Dynasties of China Asian Empires (cont.) • Ming rulers sent exploratory voyages to other areas, but officials saw the trips as costly and dangerous to China’s culture and persuaded the emperor to stop them. Dynasties of China Asian Empires (cont.) • Chinese culture influenced other parts of East Asia when, around and after 1200 B.C., Chinese settlers brought their culture, later including Buddhism and Confucianism, to the Korean Peninsula. Dynasties of China Asian Empires (cont.) • In the A.D. 1400s, Japan united under the Yamato dynasty whose rulers adopted China’s philosophy, writing system, art, sciences, and form of government. – The Japanese were also influenced by Korean thinkers. – Wealthy Japanese nobles developed new forms of literature written in Japanese, and Buddhism mixed with Japan’s local religion, Shinto. Asian Empires (cont.) • In the A.D.1100s, Minamoto Yoritomo became Japan’s first shogun, or military leader. – Land-owning warriors called samurai supported the shogun. – This system lasted until the late 1800s. Asian Empires (cont.) • From the 100s B.C. to the A.D. 900s, the Chinese ruled much of what is now Vietnam. • Hindu traders from India reached western parts of Southeast Asia by the A.D. 100s, and Muslim Arab traders and missionaries settled in coastal areas of Southeast Asia during the A.D. 800s. Asian Empires (cont.) • During the A.D. 1100s and A.D.1200s, the Khmer people founded a wealthy empire that covered much of mainland Southeast Asia. – They built a vast temple area known as Angkor Wat, blending Indian and local styles. – Angkor Wat still stands today. Which is NOT a main spiritual movement in early China? A. Confucianism B. Daoism C. Buddhism D. Shintoism 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Modern Nations After a period of European dominance, countries in the region regained their independence during the 1900s. Modern Nations (cont.) • By 1500, European merchants were traveling to China to trade for silk, porcelain, and tea. • As China tried to isolate itself from European influences, the Europeans responded by sending warships. Modern Nations (cont.) • By the 1890s, European governments and Japan had claimed large areas of China as spheres of influence, or areas of a country where a single foreign power has been granted exclusive trading rights. Modern Nations (cont.) • In 1911 a revolution in China resulted in the establishment of a republic. • By 1927 military leader Chiang Kaishek had formed the Nationalist government, and Mao Zedong represented the Communists. Modern Nations (cont.) • The Communists won power in 1949 and set up the People’s Republic of China on the mainland. • The Nationalists fled to the island of Taiwan where they set up the Republic of China. Modern Nations (cont.) • Japan at first tried to isolate itself from Western influences. • Then, in 1854, U.S. naval officer Matthew C. Perry pressured the Japanese to end their isolation. • Japan’s government quickly adopted western technology, and the country soon became an industrial and military power. Modern Nations (cont.) • Japan invaded neighboring countries for their resources and by 1940 had gained control of Taiwan, Korea, other parts of mainland Asia, and various Pacific islands. • After World War II, Japan became a democracy, although it was stripped of its overseas territories and military might. • Quickly rebuilding its economy and society, Japan emerged as a global economic power by the late 1900s. Modern Nations (cont.) • After World War II, Korea was divided into American-backed South Korea and Communist-ruled North Korea. • North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950. United States rushed to support South Korea. Modern Nations (cont.) • China’s Communist leaders eventually sent troops to help North Korea. • The Korean War ended in 1953 in a truce but without a peace treaty or a victory for either side. • Korea remains divided today. Modern Nations (cont.) • During the 1800s and 1900s, European nations dominated Southeast Asia, controlling the production and trade of the area’s goods. • The United States gained power in the region after winning the Philippines from Spain in war. Southeast Asia: Colonialism and Independence Modern Nations (cont.) • Only Siam, known today as Thailand, remained independent. • After World War II, European countries gave independence to colonies in the area, but political conflicts and wars soon raged. After World War II, which part of Korea did the United States support? A. North B. South A. A B. B 0% A 0% B Economic Powers Since 1945, many countries in the region have become great economic powers. Economic Powers (cont.) • At the end of World War II, troops of the United States and its allies occupied Japan. • The Japanese military was reduced in size, and Japan adopted a democratic constitution, but its economy was in ruins. Economic Powers (cont.) • The military occupation of Japan ended in 1952. • During the Korean War, the United States poured $3.5 billion in aid into Japan’s factories for a nearby source of supplies, creating an economic boom. • Today, Japan has the world’s secondlargest economy after the United States, exporting automobiles, cameras, and electronic goods. Economic Powers (cont.) • The East Asian and Southeast Asian areas of South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong have been nicknamed the “Asian Tigers” because they have built strong, modern economies. Economic Powers (cont.) • In the 1990s, South Korea changed from military rule to democracy. • Its growing high technology and manufacturing industries now export ships, cars, computers, and electronic appliances. Economic Powers (cont.) • The island of Taiwan functions as an independent, democratic nation, even though China claims Taiwan as a province. • Taiwan has developed a booming economy that produces computers, radios, televisions, and telephones. Economic Powers (cont.) • The port of Hong Kong was ruled by the United Kingdom from the 1840s until 1997, when it passed to China as a special administrative region. • Despite Chinese Communist rule, Hong Kong has been allowed to keep its strong, free market economy. Economic Powers (cont.) • The small country of Singapore has a highly productive economy. • As a free port, Singapore is a place where goods can be unloaded, stored, and shipped again without payment of import taxes, or taxes companies must pay to ship goods into a country. • As a result, huge amounts of goods pass through Singapore. Who ruled Hong Kong from 1840 until 1997? A. United Kingdom B. China C. Japan D. France 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Culture influences people’s perceptions about places and regions. Content Vocabulary • megalopolis • haiku • calligraphy • yurt • pagoda Academic Vocabulary • overseas • crucial The Lion Dance is a popular form of entertainment during Chinese New Year celebrations and other special occasions. These four-legged creatures, made of colorful papier-mâché and fabric, are controlled by two people. One person holds the lion’s head while another crouches under the tail. The lion dance is said to drive away the evil spirits and bring good luck and happiness. Read Section 2 to learn more about the cultures of East Asia and Southeast Asia. Do you believe it is right for the Chinese government to control population growth within its country? A. Yes B. No C. Maybe D. Don’t know 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D The youth market is booming in Asia, driven partly by J-pop, the current Japanese rock music style. J-pop’s popularity is the mind-set of the fans. Other nations in the region carried bitterness toward Japan for years after World War II. Interviewers have found, though, that the positive feelings created by J-pop result in a general positive political feeling by the region’s young people toward Japan. Population Patterns East Asia and Southeast Asia is one of the world’s most densely populated regions. Population Patterns (cont.) • More than two billion people live in the countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia. • In 1979 China’s government enacted a policy that encouraged one-child families, but in 2005 China’s population passed 1.3 billion. • Poorer countries, such as Cambodia and Laos, have higher birthrates than wealthier areas, such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, whose growth rates are actually shrinking. Population Patterns (cont.) • Nearly 60 percent of people in East Asia and Southeast Asia live in rural areas, although in recent decades many rural people have moved to cities to find better paying jobs and a higher standard of living. • Cities in East Asia and Southeast Asia are centers of industry and commerce. Population Patterns (cont.) • In China, large cities such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou have populations ranging from 6 million to more than 13 million. • In Japan, Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, and Yokohama lie so near each other that they form a megalopolis, or supersized urban area with a combined population of about 50 million. Population Patterns (cont.) • Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, has more than 11 million people, and Manila, in the Philippines, has a population of more than 10 million. Population Patterns (cont.) • In addition to urban migration, many people in the region have left their homelands in recent decades to settle overseas. • Some Southeast Asian countries have lost educated workers who would have contributed to their countries’ economic growth. What did China do to control population growth in 1979? A. Encouraged families to have no more than one child B. Restricted marriage until the age of 23 C. Made adoption illegal A. A B. B 0% C.0%C A B 0% C People and Cultures Southeast Asia has greater ethnic diversity than East Asia. People and Cultures (cont.) • In Japan, about 99 percent of the population is ethnic Japanese and speaks the Japanese language. • Koreans make up the largest ethnic group in their country and speak the Korean language. • The people of Mongolia are ethnic Mongolian, and about 90 percent of them speak the Khalkha Mongolian language. People and Cultures (cont.) • In China, the Han ethnic group makes up about 92 percent of the population. – The other 8 percent belongs to about 55 different ethnic groups. – Han Chinese, the most widely spoken language of China, has many dialects. – The Mandarin dialect is China’s official language. People and Cultures (cont.) • Among Southeast Asia’s many ethnic groups are Indonesians, Malays, Burmans, Vietnamese, Laotians, Thais, and ethnic Chinese. • Indonesia has about 300 ethnic groups. Hundreds of languages and dialects are spoken in Southeast Asia, many of which were spoken by migrants or colonizers. People and Cultures (cont.) • Buddhism is the major religion in Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam and has a large following in China, North Korea, South Korea, and Japan. • In Japan, many people combine Buddhism with Shinto, the country’s traditional religion. People and Cultures (cont.) • Communist governments have limited religious practice in China and North Korea, but religious traditions still survive in both countries. • Most people in Indonesia, Malaysia, and western China are Muslims. • Christianity is the dominant religion in the Philippines. People and Cultures (cont.) • In China, Korea, and Japan, artists have painted the rugged landscapes of their countries, reflecting the strong reverence for nature that is part of both Daoism and Shinto. • Many paintings include poems written in an elegant brush stroke called calligraphy, which means “the art of beautiful writing.” People and Cultures (cont.) • Crafts people in East Asia and Southeast Asia are also skilled at weaving, carving, and making pottery. • Many traditional buildings are quite decorative, including pagodas that have several stories with tiled roofs that curve up at the edges. People and Cultures (cont.) • East Asians and Southeast Asians have a strong literary and theatrical tradition. Japanese poets often write haiku, or brief poems that follow a specific structure. • Japan is famous for its different forms of theater, and Indonesia is known for its beautiful dances. • Puppet plays are popular in many parts of Southeast Asia. People and Cultures (cont.) • The people of East Asia and Southeast Asia view education as crucial to the positive development of children and society. – Some children attend school six days a week. – A highly educated workforce has helped several countries build productive economies. People and Cultures (cont.) • Typical homes in crowded cities are modern but have limited space. • Houses in rural areas tend to be larger but simpler. • Rural Mongolians live in yurts, or large, circular structures made of animal skins that can be packed up and moved from place to place. People and Cultures (cont.) • In Thailand and other parts of Southeast Asia, houses are often built on poles to avoid flooding during the rainy season. Which ethnic group makes up about 92% of the population in China? A. Han B. Mongolian A. A B. B 0% A 0% B Asian Empires • A series of dynasties ruled China from ancient times to the early 1900s. • In Japan, shoguns led armies of samurai warriors and governed the country. • Southeast Asia, a major trading center, was ruled by several empires and kingdoms. Modern Nations • Europeans influenced China and Japan and controlled much of Southeast Asia in the 1800s. • Japan adopted Western technology to become a modern military power. • China has recently begun free market reforms and boosted its economy. Modern Nations • Japan recovered after World War II and built one of the world’s major economies. • South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, known as the “Asian Tigers,” became economic powers in the late 1900s. People • Populations in the region grew rapidly in the 1900s. China’s and other countries’ population growth rates have since slowed. • The region’s river valleys and basins, coastal areas, and cities are very densely populated. • Most countries in the region have many ethnic groups. Japan and the Koreas are exceptions. Culture • Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism are major belief systems in East Asia and Southeast Asia. Islam, Shinto, Hinduism, and Christianity are also important in the region. • Arts include landscape painting, weaving, carving, pottery, poetry, theater, and dance. • People’s lifestyles reflect traditional and modern influences. There are many types of chairs. dynasty line of rulers from a single family that holds power for a long time porcelain high-quality kind of pottery that can be very thin and is covered with a shiny coating census a count of the number of people living in an area or country novel long fictional story shogun military leader who ruled Japan in early times samurai powerful land-owning warrior in Japan sphere of influence an area of a country where a single foreign power has been granted exclusive trading right free port place where goods can be unloaded, stored, and shipped again without payment of import taxes emerge to become known dominate control megalopolis huge urban area made up of several large cities and nearby communities calligraphy art of beautiful writing pagoda tower with many stories built as a temple or memorial haiku form of Japanese poetry known for being short and following a specific structure yurt large circular structure made of animal skins that can be packed up and moved from place to place; used as a home in Mongolia overseas beyond or across the seas crucial very important To use this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. 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