Chapter 26 - Burnet Middle School

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Chapter Introduction
Section 1: History and
Governments
Section 2: Cultures and
Lifestyles
Visual Summary
Place Every day we use
items invented in East Asia
and Southeast Asia—such as
the paper money we use to
buy goods. Today, the region
influences the world through
the products it exports. How
can trade influence the
ideas and lifestyles of
cultures?
Section 1:
History and Governments
Patterns of economic activities
result in global interdependence.
Powerful local empires ruled early
East Asia and Southeast Asia.
Europeans seeking the region’s
resources gained control of much of
the area beginning in the 1500s. By
the mid-900s, most Asian countries
had gained independence. Today,
several nations in East Asia and
Southeast Asia have developed
strong economies.
Section 2:
Cultures and Lifestyles
Culture influences people’s
perceptions about places and
regions. Rapid population growth
has created challenges for many
countries in the region. Traditional
beliefs and practices have
influenced daily life, but the region
has also been affected by modern
technology and Western culture.
Patterns of economic activities result
in global interdependence.
Content Vocabulary
• dynasty
• samurai
• porcelain
• sphere of
influence
• census
• novel
• free port
• shogun
Academic Vocabulary
• emerge
• dominate
A geisha may be Japan’s most
recognized symbol. Geisha means
“artful person.” For over 200 years,
geisha have kept traditional Japanese
culture alive. Geisha wear formal
Japanese clothing. They learn to play
the shamisen, a traditional three-stringed
instrument that is similar to the banjo.
Geisha also study calligraphy, dance,
traditional poetry, and songs. You can
learn more about the history of Japan by
reading Section 1.
Do you believe China should limit
Western influences within its
country?
A. Yes
B. No
C. Maybe
D. Don’t know
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Vietnam is becoming an “Asian Tiger.” Having recently
passed the $5.5 billion mark in exports to the United
States, Vietnam is now considered an Asian Tiger.
One of the many promising features of Vietnam’s
economic growth is the return of citizens who as
children left the country during the Vietnam War.
Bringing back education and business experience,
they are a valuable and welcome resource in Vietnam’s
new success.
Asian Empires
Dynasties ruled large
empires in East Asia and
Southeast Asia.
Asian Empires (cont.)
• China’s civilization began more than 4,000
years ago in the Huang He valley.
• Until the early 1900s, emperors of a
dynasty, or line of rulers from a single
family, would hold power until overthrown
and a new leader started a new dynasty.
Dynasties of China
Asian Empires (cont.)
• Han dynasty rulers encouraged overland
trade on the Silk Road—a large trading
network stretching from China to
Southwest Asia.
• The Chinese sent silk, tea, spices, paper,
and porcelain as far as the Mediterranean
world and received gold, silver, precious
stones, and fine woods from other
countries.
Dynasties of China
Asian Empires (cont.)
• Later, China’s Tang and Song rulers built
roads and waterways that made travel and
trade within China easier, and they
improved food production, resulting in an
increase in China’s population.
• Also during these periods, the Chinese
created steel and gunpowder, developed a
printing process, and invented the
compass, used in sailing.
Dynasties of China
Asian Empires (cont.)
• In 1211, Mongol warriors from Central Asia
conquered most of China.
– Mongol rulers kept their own language,
laws, and customs but relied on Chinese
officials to run the government.
– Mongol rule unified China.
Dynasties of China
Asian Empires (cont.)
• In the late 1300s, the Chinese drove out
the Mongols, and the Ming dynasty arose.
– Among the Ming accomplishments was
the creation of a census, or a count of
the number of people, to collect taxes
more accurately.
– Under the Ming, the Chinese staged
dramas and wrote novels, or long
fictional stories.
Dynasties of China
Asian Empires (cont.)
• Ming rulers sent exploratory voyages to
other areas, but officials saw the trips as
costly and dangerous to China’s culture
and persuaded the emperor to stop them.
Dynasties of China
Asian Empires (cont.)
• Chinese culture influenced other parts of
East Asia when, around and after 1200
B.C., Chinese settlers brought their culture,
later including Buddhism and
Confucianism, to the Korean Peninsula.
Dynasties of China
Asian Empires (cont.)
• In the A.D. 1400s, Japan united under the
Yamato dynasty whose rulers adopted
China’s philosophy, writing system, art,
sciences, and form of government.
– The Japanese were also influenced by
Korean thinkers.
– Wealthy Japanese nobles developed
new forms of literature written in
Japanese, and Buddhism mixed with
Japan’s local religion, Shinto.
Asian Empires (cont.)
• In the A.D.1100s, Minamoto Yoritomo
became Japan’s first shogun, or military
leader.
– Land-owning warriors called samurai
supported the shogun.
– This system lasted until the late 1800s.
Asian Empires (cont.)
• From the 100s B.C. to the A.D. 900s, the
Chinese ruled much of what is now
Vietnam.
• Hindu traders from India reached western
parts of Southeast Asia by the A.D. 100s,
and Muslim Arab traders and missionaries
settled in coastal areas of Southeast Asia
during the A.D. 800s.
Asian Empires (cont.)
• During the A.D. 1100s and A.D.1200s, the
Khmer people founded a wealthy empire
that covered much of mainland
Southeast Asia.
– They built a vast temple area known
as Angkor Wat, blending Indian and local
styles.
– Angkor Wat still stands today.
Which is NOT a main spiritual
movement in early China?
A. Confucianism
B. Daoism
C. Buddhism
D. Shintoism
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Modern Nations
After a period of European
dominance, countries in
the region regained their
independence during
the 1900s.
Modern Nations (cont.)
• By 1500, European merchants were
traveling to China to trade for silk,
porcelain, and tea.
• As China tried to isolate itself from
European influences, the Europeans
responded by sending warships.
Modern Nations (cont.)
• By the 1890s, European governments and
Japan had claimed large areas of China as
spheres of influence, or areas of a
country where a single foreign power has
been granted exclusive trading rights.
Modern Nations (cont.)
• In 1911 a revolution in China resulted in
the establishment of a republic.
• By 1927 military leader Chiang Kaishek
had formed the Nationalist government,
and Mao Zedong represented the
Communists.
Modern Nations (cont.)
• The Communists won power in 1949 and
set up the People’s Republic of China on
the mainland.
• The Nationalists fled to the island of
Taiwan where they set up the Republic
of China.
Modern Nations (cont.)
• Japan at first tried to isolate itself from
Western influences.
• Then, in 1854, U.S. naval officer Matthew
C. Perry pressured the Japanese to end
their isolation.
• Japan’s government quickly adopted
western technology, and the country soon
became an industrial and military power.
Modern Nations (cont.)
• Japan invaded neighboring countries for
their resources and by 1940 had gained
control of Taiwan, Korea, other parts of
mainland Asia, and various Pacific islands.
• After World War II, Japan became a
democracy, although it was stripped of its
overseas territories and military might.
• Quickly rebuilding its economy and society,
Japan emerged as a global economic
power by the late 1900s.
Modern Nations (cont.)
• After World War II, Korea was divided into
American-backed South Korea and
Communist-ruled North Korea.
• North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950.
United States rushed to support
South Korea.
Modern Nations (cont.)
• China’s Communist leaders eventually
sent troops to help North Korea.
• The Korean War ended in 1953 in a truce
but without a peace treaty or a victory for
either side.
• Korea remains divided today.
Modern Nations (cont.)
• During the 1800s and 1900s, European
nations dominated Southeast Asia,
controlling the production and trade of the
area’s goods.
• The United States gained power in the
region after winning the Philippines from
Spain in war.
Southeast Asia: Colonialism and Independence
Modern Nations (cont.)
• Only Siam, known today as Thailand,
remained independent.
• After World War II, European countries
gave independence to colonies in the
area, but political conflicts and wars
soon raged.
After World War II, which part of
Korea did the United States support?
A. North
B. South
A. A
B. B
0%
A
0%
B
Economic Powers
Since 1945, many countries in
the region have become great
economic powers.
Economic Powers (cont.)
• At the end of World War II, troops
of the United States and its allies
occupied Japan.
• The Japanese military was reduced in
size, and Japan adopted a democratic
constitution, but its economy was in ruins.
Economic Powers (cont.)
• The military occupation of Japan ended
in 1952.
• During the Korean War, the United States
poured $3.5 billion in aid into Japan’s
factories for a nearby source of supplies,
creating an economic boom.
• Today, Japan has the world’s secondlargest economy after the United States,
exporting automobiles, cameras, and
electronic goods.
Economic Powers (cont.)
• The East Asian and Southeast Asian areas
of South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and
Hong Kong have been nicknamed the
“Asian Tigers” because they have built
strong, modern economies.
Economic Powers (cont.)
• In the 1990s, South Korea changed from
military rule to democracy.
• Its growing high technology and
manufacturing industries now export ships,
cars, computers, and electronic
appliances.
Economic Powers (cont.)
• The island of Taiwan functions as an
independent, democratic nation, even
though China claims Taiwan as a province.
• Taiwan has developed a booming
economy that produces computers, radios,
televisions, and telephones.
Economic Powers (cont.)
• The port of Hong Kong was ruled by the
United Kingdom from the 1840s until 1997,
when it passed to China as a special
administrative region.
• Despite Chinese Communist rule, Hong
Kong has been allowed to keep its strong,
free market economy.
Economic Powers (cont.)
• The small country of Singapore has a
highly productive economy.
• As a free port, Singapore is a place where
goods can be unloaded, stored, and
shipped again without payment of import
taxes, or taxes companies must pay to
ship goods into a country.
• As a result, huge amounts of goods pass
through Singapore.
Who ruled Hong Kong from 1840
until 1997?
A. United Kingdom
B. China
C. Japan
D. France
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
Culture influences people’s
perceptions about places
and regions.
Content Vocabulary
• megalopolis
• haiku
• calligraphy
• yurt
• pagoda
Academic Vocabulary
• overseas
• crucial
The Lion Dance is a popular form of
entertainment during Chinese New Year
celebrations and other special occasions.
These four-legged creatures, made of
colorful papier-mâché and fabric, are
controlled by two people. One person holds
the lion’s head while another crouches under
the tail. The lion dance is said to drive away
the evil spirits and bring good luck and
happiness. Read Section 2 to learn more
about the cultures of East Asia and
Southeast Asia.
Do you believe it is right for the
Chinese government to control
population growth within its country?
A. Yes
B. No
C. Maybe
D. Don’t know
0%
A
A.
B.
C.
0%
D.
B
A
B
C
0%
D
C
0%
D
The youth market is booming in Asia, driven partly by
J-pop, the current Japanese rock music style. J-pop’s
popularity is the mind-set of the fans. Other nations in
the region carried bitterness toward Japan for years
after World War II. Interviewers have found, though,
that the positive feelings created by J-pop result in a
general positive political feeling by the region’s young
people toward Japan.
Population Patterns
East Asia and Southeast Asia
is one of the world’s most
densely populated regions.
Population Patterns (cont.)
• More than two billion people live in the
countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia.
• In 1979 China’s government enacted a
policy that encouraged one-child families,
but in 2005 China’s population passed
1.3 billion.
• Poorer countries, such as Cambodia and
Laos, have higher birthrates than wealthier
areas, such as Japan, South Korea, and
Taiwan, whose growth rates are actually
shrinking.
Population Patterns (cont.)
• Nearly 60 percent of people in East Asia
and Southeast Asia live in rural areas,
although in recent decades many rural
people have moved to cities to find better
paying jobs and a higher standard of living.
• Cities in East Asia and Southeast Asia are
centers of industry and commerce.
Population Patterns (cont.)
• In China, large cities such as Shanghai,
Beijing, and Guangzhou have populations
ranging from 6 million to more than
13 million.
• In Japan, Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, and
Yokohama lie so near each other that they
form a megalopolis, or supersized urban
area with a combined population of about
50 million.
Population Patterns (cont.)
• Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, has more
than 11 million people, and Manila, in the
Philippines, has a population of more than
10 million.
Population Patterns (cont.)
• In addition to urban migration, many
people in the region have left their
homelands in recent decades to
settle overseas.
• Some Southeast Asian countries have
lost educated workers who would
have contributed to their countries’
economic growth.
What did China do to control
population growth in 1979?
A. Encouraged families to
have no more than
one child
B. Restricted marriage
until the age of 23
C. Made adoption illegal
A. A
B. B
0% C.0%C
A
B
0%
C
People and Cultures
Southeast Asia has greater
ethnic diversity than East Asia.
People and Cultures (cont.)
• In Japan, about 99 percent of the
population is ethnic Japanese and speaks
the Japanese language.
• Koreans make up the largest ethnic group
in their country and speak the Korean
language.
• The people of Mongolia are ethnic
Mongolian, and about 90 percent of them
speak the Khalkha Mongolian language.
People and Cultures (cont.)
• In China, the Han ethnic group makes up
about 92 percent of the population.
– The other 8 percent belongs to about 55
different ethnic groups.
– Han Chinese, the most widely spoken
language of China, has many dialects.
– The Mandarin dialect is China’s official
language.
People and Cultures (cont.)
• Among Southeast Asia’s many ethnic
groups are Indonesians, Malays, Burmans,
Vietnamese, Laotians, Thais, and ethnic
Chinese.
• Indonesia has about 300 ethnic groups.
Hundreds of languages and dialects are
spoken in Southeast Asia, many of which
were spoken by migrants or colonizers.
People and Cultures (cont.)
• Buddhism is the major religion in
Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and
Vietnam and has a large following in
China, North Korea, South Korea,
and Japan.
• In Japan, many people combine Buddhism
with Shinto, the country’s traditional
religion.
People and Cultures (cont.)
• Communist governments have limited
religious practice in China and North
Korea, but religious traditions still survive
in both countries.
• Most people in Indonesia, Malaysia, and
western China are Muslims.
• Christianity is the dominant religion in the
Philippines.
People and Cultures (cont.)
• In China, Korea, and Japan, artists have
painted the rugged landscapes of their
countries, reflecting the strong reverence
for nature that is part of both Daoism
and Shinto.
• Many paintings include poems written in
an elegant brush stroke called
calligraphy, which means “the art of
beautiful writing.”
People and Cultures (cont.)
• Crafts people in East Asia and Southeast
Asia are also skilled at weaving, carving,
and making pottery.
• Many traditional buildings are quite
decorative, including pagodas that have
several stories with tiled roofs that curve
up at the edges.
People and Cultures (cont.)
• East Asians and Southeast Asians have a
strong literary and theatrical tradition.
Japanese poets often write haiku, or brief
poems that follow a specific structure.
• Japan is famous for its different forms of
theater, and Indonesia is known for its
beautiful dances.
• Puppet plays are popular in many parts of
Southeast Asia.
People and Cultures (cont.)
• The people of East Asia and Southeast
Asia view education as crucial to the
positive development of children
and society.
– Some children attend school six days
a week.
– A highly educated workforce has helped
several countries build productive
economies.
People and Cultures (cont.)
• Typical homes in crowded cities are
modern but have limited space.
• Houses in rural areas tend to be larger but
simpler.
• Rural Mongolians live in yurts, or large,
circular structures made of animal skins
that can be packed up and moved from
place to place.
People and Cultures (cont.)
• In Thailand and other parts of Southeast
Asia, houses are often built on poles to
avoid flooding during the rainy season.
Which ethnic group makes up about
92% of the population in China?
A. Han
B. Mongolian
A. A
B. B
0%
A
0%
B
Asian Empires
• A series of dynasties ruled
China from ancient times to the
early 1900s.
• In Japan, shoguns led armies
of samurai warriors and
governed the country.
• Southeast Asia, a major
trading center, was ruled by
several empires and kingdoms.
Modern Nations
• Europeans influenced
China and Japan and
controlled much of
Southeast Asia in the
1800s.
• Japan adopted Western
technology to become a
modern military power.
• China has recently begun
free market reforms and
boosted its economy.
Modern Nations
• Japan recovered after
World War II and built one
of the world’s major
economies.
• South Korea, Singapore,
Taiwan, and Hong Kong,
known as the “Asian
Tigers,” became economic
powers in the late 1900s.
People
• Populations in the region
grew rapidly in the 1900s.
China’s and other countries’
population growth rates
have since slowed.
• The region’s river valleys
and basins, coastal areas,
and cities are very densely
populated.
• Most countries in the region
have many ethnic groups.
Japan and the Koreas are
exceptions.
Culture
• Confucianism, Buddhism,
and Daoism are major
belief systems in East
Asia and Southeast Asia.
Islam, Shinto, Hinduism,
and Christianity are also
important in the region.
• Arts include landscape painting, weaving, carving,
pottery, poetry, theater, and dance.
• People’s lifestyles reflect traditional and modern
influences.
There are many
types of chairs.
dynasty
line of rulers from a single family that
holds power for a long time
porcelain
high-quality kind of pottery that can
be very thin and is covered with a
shiny coating
census
a count of the number of people living
in an area or country
novel
long fictional story
shogun
military leader who ruled Japan in
early times
samurai
powerful land-owning warrior in
Japan
sphere of influence
an area of a country where a single
foreign power has been granted
exclusive trading right
free port
place where goods can be unloaded,
stored, and shipped again without
payment of import taxes
emerge
to become known
dominate
control
megalopolis
huge urban area made up of several
large cities and nearby communities
calligraphy
art of beautiful writing
pagoda
tower with many stories built as a
temple or memorial
haiku
form of Japanese poetry known for
being short and following a specific
structure
yurt
large circular structure made of
animal skins that can be packed up
and moved from place to place; used
as a home in Mongolia
overseas
beyond or across the seas
crucial
very important
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