Japan - ESM School District

• Archipelago- chain of Island 4,000, 4
main islands
• Mountains
– Steppe Farming due to limited land 12%
• Lack of Navigable Rivers
• -Located on Rim of Fire (Volcano
activity common)
How does geography influence
•lack of resources **
•Disasters -> typhoons, volcanoes
•dense population
•Isolation from foreign world ***
– Mongols tried to invade but never
could---> “Magical Winds”
• Throughout Japanese
history, Japan had
stayed isolated from
– Just like China
Japan vs. China
• Japan is similar to what culture?
cultural diffusion from China
 examples: Character writing (Kana), Confucianism, Zen
 cooking, gardening,
Early History
• Small clans
• Early Rulers: Yamato  never very strong but
never overthrown
• During middle ages, landowners became very
powerful and Japan settled into its own feudal type
– Rice Tax
• Nobles (Diamyos)rise in power
Tokugawa Shogun
Military leader of Japan
during the Middle Ages
-Used to be a temporary
title but now became a
permanent title
Emperor power declines
(figure head)
Tokugawa= Isolate!
•Shogun makes
decision to keep
Japan isolated
from invaders!
• Bushido
• Japanese Samurai code of warrior
• **Similar to European Knights
» code of Chivalry
Harakiri (seppuku)
• A vulgar term meaning ‘to slice the abdomen’, which refers to a
ritualized form of suicide carried out by Japanese samurai
beginning in the Tokugawa period. More properly called
seppuku, it involved making two small cross-wise slices across
the gut while in a kneeling position, after which a second would
behead the samurai with a sword. In practice, the first step was
rarely carried out.
End of Isolation- Perry visits
• During the 19th Century, The “West wanted to begin
trading with China and Japan
Japan had refused as did China but in 1853, they
had persuasion
• 1853: US Commodore Matthew Perry brings fleet to
Japan with a letter from the US presidents asking
Japan to open up its ports- claims he will come
back with a bigger fleet if demands are not met
1854 Treaty of Kanagawa
• two ports open to US
By 1860, Japan opened ports to others.
How would the Japanese feel
about being forced to do this?
• -upset at shogun
• -realized they were weak and
Tokugawa Shogun realized time was
• -Japan looks to new emperor
Mutsuhito for pride and nationalism
• -Chose name “Meji” which means
enlightened ruler
–o“if you can’t beat the west, be the
Russell’s Rule
• Meiji =
• Made Japan a modern economic and World power by
creating industry
Modernized Japan
Schools modeled after US
Army of Germany
Navy of Britain
Germany’s government
Industrialize like west 1870- 1914
– Build factories
– Build railroads
• With modernization came
more money and more
Japan by 1894- felt equal
with West wanted to show
their power to the world
Began to follow Western
footsteps of imperialism
What is imperialism?
• taking over a territory of a
weaker nation by a stronger
nation ( Bully effect) and
use them for resources
Sino- Japanese War 1876
• Japan vs. China
–oLike western countries, Japan forced
Korea to open up ports but China
protested  both agreed not to fight but
China sent in troops and Japan responded
and defeated China easily
» Got control of Taiwan and other
• This left Russia realizing Japan was a major
power in Asia and challenged their
Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905
• Both wanted control of Manchuria
• Japan offered to recognize Russian rights in
Manchuria if Russia stayed out of Korea
• O They did not and war started
• O Japan wins and US negotiated treaty between
both countries
– Japan gains complete control of Korea
» Annexation of Korea
WWI- Japan fought with Allies
(US, Russia, Great Britain and
• 1914-1918
• Win war but get nothing for help in winning
• Disappointed and relationship with West
-Japan continues to imperialize in order to
obtain more resources and power. They had faced
major depression during the 1920’s due to a major
earthquake and depression in West
• REMEMBER Japan needs resources and is not a
self sufficient country based on geography
• During WWII
Japan aligns with
axis powers of
Germany and Italy.
They share betrayal
of others. Japan
and Italy were left
out of WWI treaty
December 7th, 1941
Pearl Harbor Attack
Why did they do this?
•Japan wanted dominance in Pacific and only
powerful nation with any interest in Pacific Ocean. They
figured if they took out harbors in Pear Harbor which
contained submarines, carriers, and destroyers, US would
not be able to help other nations in Pacific because it would
be too far away
– o Successful attack except for one thing: Japan did not count on
Air-craft carriers not being at Pearl Harbor
» These would later allow US to attack Japan (island hopping)
and eventually drop the A-bomb
• A-bomb dropped on Nagasaki and
Hiroshima and Japan is rebuilt by US
– Emperor is no longer seen as divine
– Creation of a Mixed Economy like US
– -Rebuilt into Economic power of