Very harsh desert environment. Very little water The people there become very fierce as they compete for scarce resources like water
Villages grow up around an oasis- places where water naturally comes up out of the ground Villages along trade routes between Africa, Asia, and Europe grow and prosper
Most people there are nomadic shepherds called Bedouins Bedouins are polytheistic Bedouin people are often called Arabs, especially after they cease being nomadic
According to legend, the ancestor of the Arabs is Ismael, Abraham’s illegitimate son by his wife’s slave Arabs therefore claim the same origins as the Hebrews
Muhammad is born into this harsh Arab/Bedouin culture around 570 AD. He is born in Mecca and becomes a wealthy merchant He is famous for being a wise man and very spiritual
One day Muhammad is visited by the angel Gabriel who tells him that Muhammad is to be God’s prophet Gabriel recites the Qur’an (Koran) to Muhammad to memorize since Muhammad is illiterate
Muslims believe that Muhammad is the last prophet, but not the only one.
Previous prophets include all the Jewish and Christian prophets – like Moses and even Jesus (they do not believe he is God’s son)
The Qur’an is Islam’s holy book. It is word-for-word, the words Gabriel told Muhammad to learn Also is a book of the prophet Muhammad’s sayings called the Hadith and a book detailing his actions called the Sunnah.
Together, these books are the guiding documents for Muslims BTW, the Qur’an is written in Arabic, and many Muslims believe to truly understand it, you must read it in Arabic
Means “submission” (to God) People who practice Islam are called Muslims, which means “one who submits” (to God)
Muslims believe in five core duties as written in the Qur’an
Shahada • Accepting God • Say: “There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his Prophet” Salah • Prayer • Muslims must face Mecca five times daily and pray Zakat • Alms • Means giving to the poor Sawm • Fasting • Muslims must fast during Ramadan to atone for sins Hajj • Pilgramage • Able bodied Muslims who can afford it must travel to Mecca
Christianity and Judaism are viewed as a pre-cursor to Islam They are allowed to practice their faith because of this, though they are encouraged to convert to Islam If they do not convert, they must pay a tax (jizyah “tribute”)
The small Muslim movement is persecuted from Mecca and forced to flee 200 miles to the village of Medina (hijira) In the year 630, Muhammad returned to Mecca and took the city.
He spared the people there, establishing a pattern of treating conquered people with tolerance
Islam quickly spread throughout the Arabian Peninsula Get out your maps Label the colored section “Islam during Muhammad’s life”
Muhammad died in 632 AD In his farewell speech, he warned the Muslim community against returning to pre-Islamic practices However, he did not give instructions for who should succeed him as leader Masjid-Al-Nabawi – Tomb of the Prophet
Among the lands the Muslims conquer are parts of the Byzantine Empire- like Jersualem Jerusalem is the holiest city in Judaism and Christianity The oldest and possibly best know mosque in the world is the Dome of the Rock. They built it on the same hill as the King Solomon’s Temple the holiest Jewish site.
732 AD a Muslim army comprised of Moors from North Africa invaded France They were stopped at the Battle of Tours by a Frankish general named Charles (later Charles Martel) The battle is seen as preserving Christianity in Europe
Muhammad’s successors, called caliphs, were elected They worked to expand Islam through conquering new territories
Under Muhammad’s successors, Islam continued to spread, eventually including all the land from Spain to the Indus River, and even further east to China and Indonesia On your map, label this section “Extent of Islam”
Ali, was Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law. He became caliph, but was assassinated.
After the first 4 caliphs, the Umayyad Caliphate became the dominant force in Islam The Umayyad's moved the capital to Damascus (modern Syria) and began to act more like European (Byzantine) rulers Umayyad Mosque (Great Mosque of Damascus)
There were some Muslims who believed the Umayyad’s were corrupting Islam One of those was Ali’s son (Muhammad’s grandson), Hussein He refused to pay allegiance to the Umayyad.
At the Battle of Karbala, Hussein was beheaded He is a martyr to Shi’a Muslims
The people who were loyal to Hussein believed that the caliph should be a descendent of Muhammad They are called Shi’a (Shiite) – means “Party of Ali” Almost all of them live in South-east Iraq and Iran Karbala is a holy site to which they pilgrimage today
Those who remained loyal to the Umayyad are called Sunni (means Majority) Sunni make up over 85% of Muslims today
The Sufi branch also broke away during the Umayyads
Sufis are generally seen as practicing a mystical type of Islam in which they seek to know only Allah in all things This is a very small, but highly dedicated sect of Islam
Baghdad became the capital The city would eventually have a population of 1 million at a time when Paris and London counted less than 50,000 Baghdad was the center of learning
One of the earliest universities was founded in Baghdad. These centers for learning contributed to learning and many new Islamic inventions.
Arab scholars made advances in math and astronomy They invented Algebra And, modern numerals like 1, 2, 3, 4… are Arabic inventions
Muslim physicians contributed to modern medicine by discovering the causes of certain diseases like Smallpox Al Razi, the most famous Muslim physician, even realized that patients recover better in clean environments
Muslim scholars preserved and translated many of the Greek and Roman classic texts Eventually, as contact with the Christians in Western Europe increased, that knowledge would pass back to Europe
Get out your book to page 283, use the pie charts to answer the following questions with your group. Turn in your answers.
How many Muslims are there in the world?
In which regions are Muslims a majority (more than 50%) or plurality (more than any other group)?
If India’s population is 1.1 billion, how many Muslims live there?
If the United States’ population is 3 million, how many Muslims live there?