Etymon - Atilf

advertisement
Etymology – etymon

Historical
or diachronic
lexicology
Etymology?
(1) ‘Origin and history of a vocable
(= grouping of lexical units
[= lexemes or idioms])’
(2) ‘Branch of linguistics that
studies the origin and the
history of vocables’

Etymon?
‘Linguistic sign (lexeme or affix)
from which descended a given
linguistic sign’
Etymological classes

(1) Inherited lexicon
= normally transmitted lexical units
(from the common ancestor
of the language family)

(2) Borrowings (= loan words)
= lexicals units which were taken
from another language

(3) Internal creations
= new lexical units constructed
from existing materials
in the same language
Etymon: inherited lexicon
= Common ancestor of a cognate set
Etymon
Proto-Germanic *fader
Engl. father
Germ. Vater
Dutch vader
a. s. o.
Etymon: borrowings
= Borrowed lexical unit
(of the donour langage)
Etymon
Engl. dessert < French dessert
Etymon: internal creations
It depends...

Etyma
(1) Derivation:
type of word-formation in which new
lexemes are created by adding affixes to
existing lexemes
Example: (TO) WASH + -ABLE > WASHABLE

(2) Compounding:
type of word-formation in which new
lexemes are created by joining two or
more lexemes
Example: (TO) SCARE + CROW >
SCARECROW
Idioms and collocations?

Idioms:
Should their etyma be phrases?
Clearly, this is a blind spot of
etymological theory and practice!

Collocations:
As collocations are not linguistic
signs, they do not have
etymologies (nor etyma)
However, we should try to identify
their source
Example: Fr. poser un lapin

poser un lapin [à qqn]
lit. « to plant a rabbit [on somebody] »
‘to stand [somebody] up’

Idiom or collocation?

TLF: idiom (« Expr. »)
poser des lapins ‘to be in the habit
of standing [somebody] up’

Collocation!

ne me pose pas de lapin! ‘do not
stand me up !’
Diachronic perspective?

LAPIN1

‘rabbit’ (since ca 1450)
monter en lapin ‘to ride a
coach sitting next to the
coachman (where no
passengers are supposed to
sit), so as to travel as a
passenger in overload’
(1809–1897)
More of the same

voyager en lapin ‘to travel [riding a coach]
sitting next to the coachman as a passenger
in overload’ (1828–1858)

‘sitting next to the
coachman (where no passengers
are supposed to sit), so as to travel
as a passenger in overload’ (1897)
EN LAPIN

‘passenger in overload in a
coach, who sits next to the
coachman (where no passengers
are supposed to sit)’ (1873–1922)
LAPIN2
Towards ‘illicite behaviour’

FAIRE CADEAU D’UN LAPIN
[à qqn] ‘to
omit to pay [a prostitute]’ (1878)

[à qqn] ‘to omit to
pay [a prostitute]’ (1881)
POSER UN LAPIN
‘fact of not fulfilling a duty
[toward somebody]’ (postulated)
LAPIN3

poser un de
ces lapins ‘to
fail clearly to
meet
somebody’s
duties’ (1888)


poser un lapin [à qqn] ‘to fail to
meet somebody’s duties’ (1896)
poser un lapin [à qqn] ‘to leave
without paying somebody’s due’
(1896)
Other ‘illicite behaviour’

poser un lapin [à qqn] ‘to stand
[somebody] up’ (since 1896)

‘appointment at which one
does not show up’ (since 2003)
LAPIN4
French borrowing in Occitan
Castres
Lexikon der Romanistischen Linguistik (LRL) 5/1
Idiom

Occitan (Castres) FA DE LAPINS
‘to cover a part of a wineyard
which one has left uncultivated
by turned over soil in order to
give the impression that it has
been cultivated’
Download
Related flashcards

Works by H. G. Wells

20 cards

English poems

31 cards

Novels by H. G. Wells

39 cards

English literature

21 cards

Novels set in England

74 cards

Create Flashcards