Lecture 2 powhiri

What is the purpose of
 The powhiri is a ritual of encounter
 The host people and the visitors
 The rituals clears away any tapu barriers
 All who take part are under the protection of
the marae
 The visitors show respect by giving support
(koha) and being careful to keep to the values
and practices of the host people
Present in Powhiri is Tapu
and Noa
 Acknowledges the sacred/spiritual to land, to
people, to atua (god)
 The protection of and maintenance of
boundaries as they apply within the tikanga
(protocols) of iwi, hapu and whanau. Including
people, places, actions.
 Acknowledgement of all involved in process,
including those who have been involved in the
What is tapu?
What is noa?
 The dual concept of tapu (sacred) and noa (free
from tapu) regulated and constricted every facet of
Maori life
 Tapu is a positive force, associated with life,
immortality, masculine objects and women of the
highest rank.
 Noa allowed things to become normal
Kawa, Tikanga and Powhiri
 When conducting powhiri it is necessary to consider
some comcepts:
 Kawa (boundaries)
 Kawa polices a practice. It serves to ensure that the
outcome intended is achieved through a minimum
standard of practice that aligns itself to the cultures
philosophy and view of the world
 Tikanga (Practices)
 Tikanga implies that there is a correct way to do things that
involves priority based on past observations or whakapapa
that helped qualify and quantify the ‘correctness’ of the said
Ka wero te kaiwero
 A warrior will come out to assess
the intentions of the visitors
 He will be the ‘best’ warrior
 He will issue a challenge
 How the challenge is responded to
will indicate the guests
Ka whakautu te kaikaranga manuhiri
Ka karanga te kaikaranga
 The women on the tangata whenua (host)
side will call to the guests
 The women on the visitors side will respond
to the hosts and the manuhiri start their
entrance onto the marae
 The kaikaranga (caller) is the first speaker. She
represents the very best of female speakers
where women do not speak on the marae atea.
Haka Powhiri
Ka korero te kaikorero
The men stand and speak
this part of the process is about removing tapu
and initiating the start of kotahitanga
Ka korero te kaikorero
 After each speaker the rest of the
whanau stand and sing a waiata tautoko
 (supporting song)
The Hongi
Ka hongi tetahi ki tetahi
 After the whaikorero and waiata there
is an opportunity to lay down your
koha (gift)
 Following this, everyone greets each
other. The hongi.
Ka kaitahi
 To completely break the tapu
and bring about kotahitanga
everyone shares kai (food)
Powhiri and nga atua Maori
 Tumatauenga governs the kawa of wero
 Papatuanuku, Hineahuone and Hine titama
hold the kawa of the karanga
 Tane te wananga and Tu te ihiihi influence the
kawa of whaikorero
 Tawhirimatea, tane mahuta and Tumatauenga
hold the kawa of the marae atea
 Rongomatane hold the kawa of the whare
 Tahu, Hinenuitepo and Rongomaraeroa govern
the kawa of kai hakari
Kia Karanga: The caller – call of welcome
Whaikorero – The orator speech of welcome
Kai Waiata – The singer Complementary chants or songs
Tangi – expression of emotion, sorrow, grief, joy
Kokiri take – initating projects and action, addressing issues
Whakatara – stirring, being accountable and holding people to
what they say they will do
Karakia – Prayer
Mahi kai – The gathering of food
Whakapai marae –The tidying of the marae
Roles and Roleplayers
Tapu and Noa
 Tapu implies the presence of supernatural power
(whether good or evil) and attracts attention and
 Noa implies the absence of such power and
attracts neither attention nor respect.
 Tapu also stands for danger, restrictions on
freedom of action
 Noa on the other hand, is safety, freedom from
restriction, and relaxed, outgoing warmth.
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