例句 - cltav

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2014 CLTAV
VCE 实用汉译英讲座
Translating from Chinese
characters into English
袁瑞兰
内容
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序言:翻译在VCE汉语考试中的重要性
翻译的基本理论
VCE翻译部分的评分标准
讲翻译的步骤 (建议)
翻译技巧分解
翻译在VCE汉语考试中的重要性
• 在VCE笔试中,翻译不光是试卷中第二部分的Part
C汉译英部分(15分), 而且听力中Part A 的
Texts 1 and 2 (5分), 和阅读部分中的Text 4
(15分)都是用英语回答问题的,也就是说,学
生听到的和读到是汉语,可是要在有限的时间里
按照英语的习惯原原本本地把汉语意思表达出来
,这就需要熟练的技巧。由此可见,在笔试中,
汉译英占了相当大的一部分。(另外,Unit 2的
SAC2b 已经有翻译了)因此,怎样有效地教授汉
译英的技巧就尤为重要了。
翻译的基本理论
• 翻译一般来说有两种方法:直译 (direct translation)
和意译 (meaning-based translation),或者按照所要译
的语言的语法和习惯进行翻译。有些句子可直译,有些必
须意译。
比如:我妈妈是护士。
My mum is a nurse.
• 在翻译过程中,译文必须与原作的内容和形式统一(忠实
于原作),如果不联系它的上下文和全段或全文的主要思
想,是不可能把句子译好的。
• 忠实与通顺是相辅相成的,不可只讲忠实而忽视了通顺,
或者只顾通顺而破坏了原作的意思。
VCE的翻译评分标准
• The capacity to understand the passage and convey the
meaning in accurate and appropriate English
能够理解(明白)考题内容,并能用准确、恰当的英语
传达其意思
• The capacity to interpret and express grammatical
aspects of the passage accurately
能够准确翻译和表达原作的语体/语法层面的内容
讲翻译的步骤(建议)
准备、讲解、阅读、翻译、检查/批改
•第一步:老师准备/备课
备翻译课时,老师要有目的,做到心中有数:这节
课讲什么。比如:是讲语序呢,还是讲时态呢。讲
多少,哪些要讲,哪些要练,怎样练。哪些留作课
后作业等。
讲翻译的步骤(建议)cont.
• 第二步:讲解---通过例句讲解方法
深入浅出地先讲理论与翻译技巧,再做练习;
最好用例句来说明;
比如加字法:“他是老师。” “He is a teacher.”
• 第三步: 阅读原文
翻译以前,学生先要阅读全部原文。阅读时,首先要看是全部
翻译还是部分翻译;要读懂、明白汉语文章的意思;找出语
言现象/语法结构;惯用法;确定人称、动词/时态;然后提
笔用英文的习惯和翻译技巧进行翻译。
讲翻译的步骤(建议)cont.
• 第四步:翻译
书写、标点符号、大小写、段落、语言点/关键词、
语法结构;以及用词,和人名、地名、日期、方
位、数字等等
* 要注意:很多非大陆的高级组的学生不会拼音,
所以人名和有些地名不会翻译。一定要专门训练
VCE词汇表中规定的姓名,和一些其他常用姓名、
历史人物等,以及中国的名胜古迹、主要城市的
的翻译。哪些人名用拼音,哪些用英语名字、哪
些人名的拼音要写在一起,哪些要分开写等。
讲翻译的步骤(建议)cont.
• 第五步:检查/修改
检查对汉语词汇、成语等是否能正确理解和翻译;
检查英语是否流利、准确;
是否抓住了课文中的语言现象;译文是否符合英语
的习惯;是否忠实汉语原文;是否有多译;或遗
漏的词、句或内容;
修改后,最好让学生把错句重新抄写一遍,以加深
记忆;
避免极度口头语。
例文翻译
我开始学汉语的时候,觉得汉语发音很难,语调也
不容易掌握。我常常花很多时间写汉字,可是还是记不
住。后来我才发现,如果每天都练习写几个汉字,记起
来就容易多了。所以我现在每天都花十分钟练习写汉字
,结果每次的汉字考试都能得满分。我也常常听课文的
录音带,反复读课文,并且在课堂上多说汉语,我现在
的发音和语调也比以前好多了。虽然汉语学起来不容易
,但是它一直是我最喜欢的科目。我相信我的汉语高考
成绩一定会很好。
例文参考译文
When I started learning Chinese, I found Chines pronunciation
very hard, and the tones were not easy to master either. I used to
spend a lot of time writing characters, but still couldn’t remember
them. Later, I found that if I practised some characters every day,
it became much easier to remember. Therefore I now spend 10
minutes every day writing characters, and as a result, I get full
marks in character test every time. I also listen to text recordings
often, read texts repeatedly, and speak more Chinese in class so
that my pronunciation and tones are far/much better than before.
Although Chinese is not easy to learn, it has been my favourite
subject. I believe that I will achieve very good results in the VCE
Chinese examinations.
VCE 中文Assessment Report
正如往年VCE 中文的Assessment Report中指
出的:
英语语句要通顺、表达准确、忠实原文;注
意时态的正确使用、名词的单复数与动词的
对应,以及语言点的准确翻译等。(e.g. 2009
年:‘越来越……’;‘不得不’和‘不管……都
’的译法。2010年:‘不仅……而且’的译法。)
Assessment Report cont.
• 2010:“More time should be spent in class to
improve students’ translation skills”.
• “It was essential that students understood the
two texts thoroughly before providing the English
translation. Students should first identify the
overall idea of each text and then translate each
sentence accurately.”
翻译技巧分解
1. 汉英在词序方面的不同(word order)
A. 状语的位置
•时间状语, 地点状语, 方式状语
他是昨天来的。He came yesterday.
你在这儿干什么?
What are you doing here?
我是骑自行车来的。 I came by bike/bicycle.
她是一九九三年八月三十日在墨尔本出生的。
She was born in Melbourne on the 30th of August
1993/30 August 1993.
汉英在词序方面的区别 cont.
B. 定语的位置
•单词作定语
一个重要的会议
an important meeting
今天的报纸
today’s newspaper
•短语或句子作定语
他们喜欢吃我妈妈做的饭。
They like the meals cooked by my mum/ (that) my mum
cooks.
站在那里的人是我老师。
The person standing there (who is standing there) is my
teacher.
2. 主动&被动,过去分词&现在分词
一般来说,过去分词作形容词用时含有被动的意思,而现在
分词作形容词用时则含有主动的意思。
例句:
•
我对这部电影很感兴趣。
I’m interested in this movie.
• 这部电影很有意思。 This movie is very interesting.
•
激动人心的消息
exciting news
•
你看起来很累。
You look very tired.
比较:This job is tiring.
•
那本书很无聊。
That book is boring.
比较:I feel bored.
3. 被动语态
带“被, 受, 给, 让, 使” 的句子
例句:
•他昨天被同学打了。
He was beaten by a fellow student yesterday.
•他的考试成绩优异, 因此受到了表扬。
He was praised for his excellent examination marks/results.
•她让老师批评了, 因为她没有做作业。
She was scolded/rebuked by the teacher for not doing her
homework. (Or: She was scolded/rebuked by the teacher because
she didn’t do/had not done her homework.)
4. 词性转换,增补/省略字词
在翻译过程中, 常常需要转换词性, 或者增加和省略字词以
便使译文符合英语的习惯和要求。
例句:
•
她把窗子打开让新鲜空气进来。
She opened the window to let fresh air in.
•
明天你和我一起去, 好吗?
Is it OK you go with me tomorrow?
•
他高,我矮。
He is tall, (but) I am short.
•
我姐姐十九岁,我十七岁。
My older sister is 19, (and) I am 17.
•
我爸爸是老师,妈妈是工程师。
My dad is a teacher, and my mum is an engineer.
5. 条件句/虚拟语气/假设句
(如果/要是……就)
•如果你明天和我一起去游泳,就请早点儿来。
If you are going swimming with me tomorrow, please come
early.
•要是不下雨, 我们就去买东西。
If it doesn’t rain, we will go shopping.
•如果我是你,我就不去。
If I were you, I wouldn’t go.
•要是他昨天来的话,他就会见到你。
If he had come yesterday, he would have seen you.
6.
时态
• 现在时, 过去时, 将来时, 现在完成时, 过去完成时
他天天去游泳。
He goes swimming every day.
我爸爸以前是老师。My dad used to be a teacher./My father
was a teacher before.
你后天来吗?
Are you coming the day after tomorrow?
我吃完饭再做作业。I will do my homework after dinner.
我已经把作业做完了。I have finished my homework.
他到那儿时,我们已经走了。
When he arrived there, we had (already) left.
我昨天不会做这道题,可是现在会了。
I couldn’t solve the problem yesterday, but I can now.
7. 冠词的用法
A. 不定冠词 a & an (泛指人或事物)
• 当老师的应该有耐心。
A teacher should have patience (in his/her work).
(指 “类别”)
• 她是一个优秀的学生。(指 “一”)
She is an excellent student.
B. 定冠词 the 的用法 (特指的人或事物)
例句:
•
月亮/太阳慢慢升起。
The moon/sun is rising slowly.
(指 “独一无二”)
•
坐在那儿的女孩是我妹妹。
The girl sitting there is my younger sister.
(后面有定语)
•
我在回家的路上看见一个男孩和一个女孩,男孩拿着一
本书,女孩拿着一个洋娃娃。
I saw a boy and a girl on my way home. The boy had a
book and the girl had a doll. (特指前面提到的)
8. “在”的译法
汉语中的“在”在英语中要用不同的词来表达。
例句:
•他站在桌旁。
He stands by the desk/table.
•我弟弟坐在门背后。
My younger brother sits behind the door.
•他们是在晚上八点整离开的。
They left at 8pm sharp.
•我们计划在七月十号去北京。
We plan to go to Beijing on 10 July.
9. 不确定主语的译法
如 “有人”, “大家”, “众所周知”, “人们”, “据说”……
• 有人相信/认为, 每天吃苹果,医生远离我。
It is believed that an apple a day keeps doctors away.
• 众所周知, 中国发展得特别快。
It is well known that China is developing extremely fast.
• 大家认为,你的建议是对的。
It is generally considered that your idea is right.
• 据说他是从美国来的。
It is said he came from America.
10. 不定词“哪儿、什么、谁”的翻译
•
“哪儿、什么、谁” 除了作疑问词以外,还可作不定词
,“哪儿”是 anywhere和wherever的意思,“什么”是
whatever 和anything, “谁” 是whoever 和anyone的意思。
例句:
• 我今天很累,哪儿都不想去。 I’m very tired today, so I
don’t want to go anywhere.
• 无论你说什么,他们都不相信你。Whatever you say, they
don’t believe you.
• 谁想去打篮球,就请告诉我。 Those who want / Whoever
wants to play basketball please let me know.
• 比较:你在说什么?你要去哪儿?她是谁?
11. “越来越”和“越……越……”的翻译
• “越来越”也用于比较,表示程度的增加。
• “越……越……”也表示“越”的重叠使用形式,英语意
思是:“the more …the more….”
例句:
• 最近越来越多的学生参加课外活动了。
• More and more students have participated in the extra-curricular
recently.
• 你学习越努力,考试成绩就会越好。
• The harder you study, the better your examination results will
be.
• 你弟弟今年越长越高了。Your little brother is growing taller
and taller this year.
12. “过”的翻译
• 助词“过”用在动词后面,表示动作的完成和结束,也可
以表示过去的经历。
例句:
• 你吃过午饭了吗?
Have you had/eaten your lunch?
• 他从来没有去过天安门广场。
He has never been to Tiananmen Square.
• 你看过这个电影吗?
Have you seen this movie?
13. “不管/无论……都/总是……” 的译法
这个结构表示无条件的条件分句, 英语意思是 “no matter…,
whatever …”
例句:
•不管他工作多忙,他每天都要去健身房锻练身体。
No matter how busy he is with his work, he always goes to gym
every day to exercise.
•不管刮风还是下雨,我妹妹总是在星期六下午去打无板篮球。
No matter if it is windy or rains, my little sister always goes to play
netball on Saturday afternoons.
•无论你说什么,我都要离开这儿。
Whatever you say (No matter what you say), I still want to leave
here.
14. “把”字句的译法
例句:
•杰克, 你把你的鞋放哪儿啦?
Jack, where did you put your shoes?
•他已经把画儿挂在墙上了。
He has already hung the picture on the wall.
•我想把作业做完再回家。
I don’t want to go home until I finish my homework. (Or: I want
to finish my homework before going home.)
•他没有把信寄出去。
He didn’t post the letter.
15. “除了……”及类似句
• “除了以外……, 还/也” (apart from…, besides);
“除此之/以外”(in addition to…)/“另外”
(besides/in addition); “除了以外……都” 。
• 我妹妹喜欢唱歌和跳舞。除此之外,她还喜欢画画。
My younger sister likes singing and dancing. In addition, she
likes drawing/painting.
• 除了大为, 我们今天都去动物园了。
(大为没去)
We all went to the Zoo today except David.
• 比较: 除了大为, 我们今天也去动物园了。 (大为去了)
Besides/Apart from David, we also went to the Zoo today.
•
16. “着”字句的译法
“着”表示一个动作或者一种状态的持续。
例句:
•桌子上放着一本书。 There is a book on the desk.
•墙上挂着一幅画。
There is a picture hanging on the wall.
•练习本上写着我的名字。
My name is written on the exercise book.
•门开着呢,请进来。
The door is open, please come in.
17. 一些主要句型的翻译
A. 一边……一边
例句:
• 她一边唱歌, 一边准备晚饭。
She sings as she prepares the dinner. (Or: She sings while
preparing the dinner.)
• 他一边听音乐, 一边做作业。
He listens to music when he does his homework.
主要句型 cont.
•
•
•
•
•
B. 虽然……但是:although…, or: …but;
C. 因为……所以:because, …, or: …so;
D. 一……就:as soon as…
E. 不但……而且:not only…, but also…
F. 总之/总而言之: in short, in one word, in
conclusion…
谢谢!
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