Introduction to BALAAGHA
Art of Eloquence
Lesson Seven
Modifications by
Sheikh Safdar Razi
KINAAYAH (implication)
Indirect (implied) indication (of a description or behavior or an act.)
KINAAYAH is used many times when the direct indication might be disrespectful or
cause an offense or be less respectful, or the KINAAYAH would be more appropriate /
decent / stronger in effect such as : someone generous who feeds people a lot is
called a person with abundance of ashes (KATHEER URAMAAD), this means a lot of
burning for cooking is happening in his house in order to feed plenty.
The difference between KINAAYAH and MAJAAZ :
Linguistic MAJAAZ the intentional meaning is the metaphorical meaning related to
the real meaning in the system of language ( Lion for a brave person)
Unlinked or unrelated MAJAAZ (MORSAL): The relation is not in the system of
language but there is another (nonlinguistic) relation (as mentioned previously such
as causality)
KINAAYAH: using a phrase (mostly used or known or practiced after the first use of it,
and becomes comprehended in a community, and might be associated with some
type of exaggeration) such as the example mentioned KATHEERUN RAMAD which has
real direct meaning of a person who cooks a lot, therefore he is generous. In this
case the word was used in its real meaning (not metaphorical –MAJAAZ) but in some
type of exaggeration (In exaggeration the use was not limited to the known phrases
used by Arab or the community)
Types of KINAAYAH:
 3 Types of KINAAYAH:
1. Indication of (SIFFAH) an intangible abstract or
description or adjective : Person with plenty
ashes=describing generosity (intangible)
2. Indication of (MOWSOOF)- tangible or described thing: A
person with two faces =Hypocrite (Tangible)
3. Indication of a relation/tie (NISBAH) - related to either
SIFFAH or MOWSOOF :Lion in his attire, instead of saying
he is wearing the cloth of bravery (KINAYAH of SIFFAH) ,
he brings something related to/or associated with the
bravery which is lion and replaces it with the bravery,
(the MAJAAZ would be Lion is coming talking on cell
phone where the real lion was used, TASHBEEH would be
He is a lion or like a lion, but this is KINAYAH where the
poet is saying that he is wearing (attire) the lion, he
means wearing the bravery)- ponder on!
Types of KINAAYAH:
2. Indication of described thing (MOWSOOF) Indicates a self that
is tangible
This can be describing a man for the one who holds the arrow and
for being described by the one who has “HINNAH” (paint) on
her hand. In one of the poetry the poet mentions that in
front of the king the one who has arrow is equal to the one
who’s hand is painted with HINNAH.
This means the king does not distinguish between the male /
female gender.
3. Indication of a relation/tie (NISBAH)
In this type the KINAAYAH indicates something related to a
self/description (tangible / concrete or intangible /
abstract) or associated with self or description
The Lion is in his attire. – KINAAYAH
Some words used as KINAAYAH
 Arabs used certain personalities with
certain characteristics and simile
such as they described a generous
person with HATIM and a wise person
used to describe an oppressor
Eloquence of KINAAYAH
 KINAAYAH or figure of speech is a kind of indirect
implication of the real meaning and in one of the
cause of eloquence in the KINAAYAH is that it brings
the meaning into tangible things such as the generosity
which is non-tangible meaning is presented by the
abundance of ashes. Ashes thus are tangible things
which create stronger picture of generosity. Therefore
the listeners can materialize the non-materialistic
meaning and comprehend the beauty of the nonmaterialistic meanings.
 Note: there are times where a text of Arabic literature
could contain all forms of BAYAAN such as simile,
metaphor, figure of speech and the poet or author may
jump from one to another creating a bouncing
beautiful affect in the heart of the listener. Thus
creating more depth in beauty and eloquence in
The Index of Science of Abstract
1. KHABAR (Predicate)
2. Types of KHABAR
3. Deviation of the KHABAR from its real
4. INSHAA (The demanding statement)
5. Types of INSHAA
6. ALQASR (specification)
7. EEJAAZ (Synopsis ), ITNAAB (expansion),
MOSAAWAAT (equality)
8. The BALAGHA affects of the science of
Sentences in Arabic Language
Sentences are of two types in BALAAGHA:
1. Sentence informing (KHABR)
 It is raining
2. Sentence of appeal (asking for
something) (INSHAA) such as
Command, Interrogative, Wishful .
 Where were you?
KHABAR (Predicate)
 KHABAR (Predicate) : A sentence which can be true or
 Purpose:
 1. Informing an ignorant person = Benefit KHABAR
 “He woke up early today” (the listener doesn’t
 2. Informing someone who already knows = Benefited
KHABAR, that means it has already been benefited in
the past, but it could have a purpose in it for that it
is been informed to the listener, such as blaming or
condemning some one.
 “You woke up late today” (I know I woke up late)
Purpose of KHABAR can be either Benefit or Benefited
depending upon the person
Various Purpose of KHABAR
Seeking Mercy:
Dua of Prophet Zakariya in Sura Mariam Verse 4
‫ك َربِّ َشقِ ًيا‬
َ ‫َقا َل َربِّ إِ ِّني َو َه َن ْال َع ْظ ُم ِم ِّني َوا ْش َت َع َل الرَّ ْأسُ َش ْيبًا َولَ ْم أَ ُكن ِب ُد َعا ِئ‬
[Shakir 19:4] He said: My Lord! surely my bones are weakened
and my head flares with hoariness, and, my Lord! I have never
been unsuccessful in my prayer to Thee:
Prophet Zakaria (AS) is informing God about his weakness but
God is aware of it. Thus this is Benefited KHABAR (God already
knows about it)
Any communication to Allah will always be Benefited KHABAR
because he knows already.
I’m from a brave nation
Grieve / Mourning
Tragedy of Karbala in a sad way
Types of KHABAR
 Initial KHABAR (IBTIDAA’E): For a listener who does
not have any knowledge about the content of the
KHABAR, no emphases is used.
 Emphasized KHABAR (TALABI): For a listener who is
hesitant about your KHABAR and not sure about its
accuracy. It is preferred to emphasize this KHABAR
with verily, surly and other tools of emphases
 Strongly emphasized KHABAR (INKAARI): The
listener denies and refuses to accept the KHABAR.
He must emphasize it using one or more tools of
emphasis suitable for the degree of his denial in
strength and weakness.
INSHAA (Asking For)
INSHAA are appealing sentences (requirement).
Appealing sentences come in various styles:
Command (‘AMR) – Comes from Higher Authority to lower Authority.
General Command his solider, father command his son.
NAHI – Prohibition- Avoidance is appealed (can be direct or indirect
negative command)
Do not drink wine
Interrogative – the answer is appealed
RAJAA’ (Hope ) – The appeal is from peers or from lower status people
to higher status people.
TAMANEE– Wish – Appealing something difficult to achieve.
I wish I have a Lamborghini
AN-NIDAA- Vocative – Appealing attention from called upon person or
 The book mentions various types of nonappealing INSHAA which will be discussed in the
next level.
 There are occasions when present tense is used
as a form of command. An example would be
the narrations of the Infallibles (AS). An
example is when a person comes to the imam
and mentions that his attire got impure. The
response of the Imam is present tense prefixed
by imperative LAAM. Thus the Infallible will say
LEYAGHSIL (He should wash).
Using the KHABAR as INSHAA
 As in the trade and transactions:
 Marriage contract
 Buying and selling
 Renting….etc.
Forms of Command
 1. Imperative Verb – EGHSIL
 2. Present Tense prefixed with LAAM of
 3. Noun of Imperative Verb (ISIM FE’L AMR) :
 4. MASDAR NAAE’B in FA’EL AMR – Infinitive
that can be interpreted as command verb:
 Sabran Ya Ala Yasir Fa Inna Mowedeqo Jannah –
Patience Oh Family of Yasir for surely your promised
place is Heaven) (The command verb is Osbor but as
you can see it is not used, and Sabran (infinitive) is
interpreted as command)
Form of Prohibition
 There is only one form of
 Laa An-Naaheya (Prohibiting Laa)
precedes the present tense such as
the verse of Prohibiting Fornication :
Wa Laa Taqrabu Zina.
Forms of Interrogative
Tools of interrogation
Hamza: a’’ Anta Mohammadun? Are you Mohammad
Hul: Hul Anta Mohammadun ? Are You Mohammad?
Hamza and Hul could include two or more options in which the listener is required to chose one. In such a case Um (or) is used.
A’’ Anta Mohammadun Um Aliyun? OR Hul Anta Mohammadun Um Aliyun?
Mun (who) : This is used for intellectuals
Maa (what) : It is used for non-intellectual thing or to ask your name or to ask further clarifaciton of the reality of a thing
Mata (When) : It is used for asking about time in the past or future.
Ay’yan (When) : It is asked for future only in a terrifying subject.
Kayfa (How): Ask about the status
Ayna (Where): Ask where
Unna : Unna can mean How, When, or where.
Kam (How Many/Much): Kam is used to ask about numbers
Aye (Which) : To Define one of the two confused things such as time, number, thing, status, person,.
Forms of Interrogative
 Notes: The Interrogative forms of
sentences are used to seek answers of
unknown information, however it could
be used for other reasons such as
:exclamation, astonishment, blaming,
insulting, praising, condemning,
amplifying (magnifying).
Forms of : RAJAA’ and TAMANEE
 TAMANEE: Desiring things that are either
impossible or highly difficult to attain.
 Layta (hope), Hal, Low (hope) and La’ala can be
 Note: If the desirable was achievable then it will
be considered Hope (Rajaa’) and it will be
expressed by La’lala (Maybe) or Asa (Maybe)
Forms of AN-NIDAA
 An-Nidaa has 8 tools:
."‫ و"وا‬،"‫ و"ه َيا‬،"‫ و"آي" و"أَيا‬،"‫ و"آ‬،"‫ و" َيا‬،"‫و"أي‬
 Hamza and Aye are used to call someone nearby. All the
other tools are used for someone far away.
 Sometimes the far person can be caled by Hamza and
Aye because he is closest to the heart or present in the
 Sometimes the closest person can be used with the tools
of furtherest due to high rank, Low status, or
 The Nidaa can divert from its purpose of calling
someone to metaphorical purposes indicated by context
clues such as regret or temptation.
 AlQasro (Al-Hasro) – Restricting Phrase
 ADAAT ALHASR: Particles used for restriction
 Mohammad is None but Messenger (MAA=ILLA)
 There is no god but Allah (LAA+ILLA)
 We are restricting God to be None but Allah
 We are restringing Mohammad is nothing but a
ALQASR (Specification)
Forms of Restrictions:
 1. Using negating Laa and excluding tool of Illah such as Laa
Ilaha ILLA AIlah – There is no god except Allah.
 2. Inna + Ma = Innama which means NONE but such as Innama
Waliykom Aliyun- Your Authority is none but Ali. (Innama
Waliylkumullah wa rasololoho…)
 3. Conjunction with Laa (not) or Bul (more than that it is)
such as The Earth is not fixed but moving . Here we used Laa.
 Aliyun Hayy Laa Mayait Ali is living not dead.
 4. Using Maa and Bal. Maa Aliyun Mayatiun Bal Hay. – Ali is not
dead but living .
 Lakin can be used instead of Bal: Maa Aliyun Mayatiun
 5. Advancing a delayed component of a sentence such as
preceding khabar and delaying mobtada, or delaying the verb
 BE Aliyin Naktadi – Ali is who we follow that means we
don’t follow anyone other than Ali
EEJAAZ (Synopsis ), ITNAAB (Expansion),
MOSAAWAAT (Equality )
 Mosaawaat (equality) the meaning in the sentence is
equal to the words and the words are equal to the
meaning, there is no increase on each other.
َّ ‫صالَ َة َوآ ُتو ْا‬
‫ّللا ِب َما‬
َّ ‫َوأَ ِقيمُو ْا ال‬
ِ َ‫الز َكا َة َو َما ُت َق ِّدمُو ْا ألَنفُ ِس ُكم مِّنْ َخي ٍْر َت ِج ُدوهُ ِعند‬
َ َّ‫ّللا إِن‬
ِ ‫ون َب‬
َ ُ‫َتعْ َمل‬
 [Shakir 2:110] And keep up prayer and pay the poorrate and whatever good you send before for
yourselves, you shall find it with Allah; surely Allah
sees what you do.
 Allah (SWT) used direct words for direct meanings,
no less in words or meaning. They are equal.
 There is nothing implicit or extra assume: whatever
good you send before for yourselves, you shall find it
with Allah
EEJAAZ (Synopsis )
 Eejaaz (Synopsis) : There are words that are implicit and
meaning is presented without words therefore the words are
less and the meanings are more.
 Sura Fajr Verse 22
ُ َ‫ك َو ْال َمل‬
‫ص ًفا‬
َ ‫ص ًفا‬
َ ‫ك‬
َ ‫َو َجاء َر ُّب‬
 [Shakir 89:22] And your Lord comes and (also) the angels in
 Lord does not come so there is something mistake.
 There is an implicit word of Amr or Yowm (Jaa a Rabbuka Amr
or Yowm , thus that means the meaning is more than the
 There are several verses in the quran that has Eejaaz, such as
people will be looking at their Lord, people will be looking at
the Bounties of the Lord. Ask the city, it should be Asking the
People of the City.
ITNAAB (Expansion)
 The words are more than the meaning.
 Sura Noah Verse 28
ْ ِّ‫َرب‬
‫ت َو ََل‬
ِ ‫ين َو ْالم ُْؤ ِم َنا‬
َ ‫اغفِرْ لِي َولِ َوالِدَيَّ َولِ َمن دَ َخ َل َب ْي ِت َي م ُْؤ ِم ًنا َولِ ْلم ُْؤ ِم ِن‬
َّ ‫َتز ِد‬
‫ين إِ ََّل َت َبارً ا‬
َ ‫الظالِ ِم‬
 [Shakir 71:28] My Lord! forgive me and my parents and him
who enters my house believing, and the believing men and
the believing women; and do not increase the unjust in
aught but destruction!
 Itnaab occurs in the above Ayat when he is asking forgiveness
for the believers entering his house then it includes in his
dua for the believing men and believing women.
 Thus the sentence “ who enters my house beliving” is
 In Quran Itnaab happened with a purpose.
ITNAAB (Expansion)
 Purposes of ITNAAB:
 ITNAAB could be done for one of the following
 1. Specifying the general to give alert to the specific
 2. Generalizing a specific to stretch the benefit of
specific to the general category
 3. Elaboration after vagueness of the meaning
 4. Repetition to emphasize the meaning either to
convince or to regret
 5. Interrupting / Parenthetical Sentence will be
discussed in the higher level.
Eloquent of the meanings of
various types of sentences
 As mentioned when discussing the purpose of
predicate / KHABAR that predicate can be used for
various purposes other than just informing someone
about something. Sometimes the KHABAR / predicate
sentence might serve an appealing purpose or indicate
a denial of something or express grieve and sadness,
weakness, or any type of thing that is known to the
listener where the original meaning of KHABAR is to
inform someone who does not have knowledge about
the predicate / KHABAR. And this kind of deviation in
using the KHABAR away from using it for real purpose
is an art and requires skilled people to use it properly
and to create an impact in the heart of the listener. If
not used properly the listener might end up into
confusion thus instead of creating eloquence,
vagueness is created.
Eloquent of the meanings of
various types of sentences
 The same can be said about expanding a
sentence or creating a synopsis. A person
might expand but it can become
unnecessarily boring and might present a
synopsis but important points might be
eliminated due to the improper brevity of
that sentence. Thus it requires skill as well
to create proper impact in the heart of the
Related flashcards

Markup languages

34 cards


15 cards


24 cards

Markup languages

43 cards

Formal languages

16 cards

Create Flashcards