Introduction to BALAAGHA Art of Eloquence Lesson Seven From AL-BALAAGHA AL-WAADHEHA Modifications by Sheikh Safdar Razi KINAAYAH (implication) Indirect (implied) indication (of a description or behavior or an act.) KINAAYAH is used many times when the direct indication might be disrespectful or cause an offense or be less respectful, or the KINAAYAH would be more appropriate / decent / stronger in effect such as : someone generous who feeds people a lot is called a person with abundance of ashes (KATHEER URAMAAD), this means a lot of burning for cooking is happening in his house in order to feed plenty. The difference between KINAAYAH and MAJAAZ : Linguistic MAJAAZ the intentional meaning is the metaphorical meaning related to the real meaning in the system of language ( Lion for a brave person) Unlinked or unrelated MAJAAZ (MORSAL): The relation is not in the system of language but there is another (nonlinguistic) relation (as mentioned previously such as causality) KINAAYAH: using a phrase (mostly used or known or practiced after the first use of it, and becomes comprehended in a community, and might be associated with some type of exaggeration) such as the example mentioned KATHEERUN RAMAD which has real direct meaning of a person who cooks a lot, therefore he is generous. In this case the word was used in its real meaning (not metaphorical –MAJAAZ) but in some type of exaggeration (In exaggeration the use was not limited to the known phrases used by Arab or the community) Types of KINAAYAH: 3 Types of KINAAYAH: 1. Indication of (SIFFAH) an intangible abstract or description or adjective : Person with plenty ashes=describing generosity (intangible) 2. Indication of (MOWSOOF)- tangible or described thing: A person with two faces =Hypocrite (Tangible) 3. Indication of a relation/tie (NISBAH) - related to either SIFFAH or MOWSOOF :Lion in his attire, instead of saying he is wearing the cloth of bravery (KINAYAH of SIFFAH) , he brings something related to/or associated with the bravery which is lion and replaces it with the bravery, (the MAJAAZ would be Lion is coming talking on cell phone where the real lion was used, TASHBEEH would be He is a lion or like a lion, but this is KINAYAH where the poet is saying that he is wearing (attire) the lion, he means wearing the bravery)- ponder on! Types of KINAAYAH: 2. Indication of described thing (MOWSOOF) Indicates a self that is tangible This can be describing a man for the one who holds the arrow and for being described by the one who has “HINNAH” (paint) on her hand. In one of the poetry the poet mentions that in front of the king the one who has arrow is equal to the one who’s hand is painted with HINNAH. This means the king does not distinguish between the male / female gender. 3. Indication of a relation/tie (NISBAH) In this type the KINAAYAH indicates something related to a self/description (tangible / concrete or intangible / abstract) or associated with self or description The Lion is in his attire. – KINAAYAH Some words used as KINAAYAH Arabs used certain personalities with certain characteristics and simile such as they described a generous person with HATIM and a wise person with LUQMAAN. HITLER or SADDAM or YAZEED can be used to describe an oppressor Eloquence of KINAAYAH KINAAYAH or figure of speech is a kind of indirect implication of the real meaning and in one of the cause of eloquence in the KINAAYAH is that it brings the meaning into tangible things such as the generosity which is non-tangible meaning is presented by the abundance of ashes. Ashes thus are tangible things which create stronger picture of generosity. Therefore the listeners can materialize the non-materialistic meaning and comprehend the beauty of the nonmaterialistic meanings. Note: there are times where a text of Arabic literature could contain all forms of BAYAAN such as simile, metaphor, figure of speech and the poet or author may jump from one to another creating a bouncing beautiful affect in the heart of the listener. Thus creating more depth in beauty and eloquence in speech. The Index of Science of Abstract 1. KHABAR (Predicate) 2. Types of KHABAR 3. Deviation of the KHABAR from its real purpose 4. INSHAA (The demanding statement) 5. Types of INSHAA 6. ALQASR (specification) 7. EEJAAZ (Synopsis ), ITNAAB (expansion), MOSAAWAAT (equality) 8. The BALAGHA affects of the science of Abstracts Sentences in Arabic Language Sentences are of two types in BALAAGHA: 1. Sentence informing (KHABR) It is raining 2. Sentence of appeal (asking for something) (INSHAA) such as Command, Interrogative, Wishful . Where were you? KHABAR (Predicate) KHABAR (Predicate) : A sentence which can be true or false Purpose: 1. Informing an ignorant person = Benefit KHABAR “He woke up early today” (the listener doesn’t know) 2. Informing someone who already knows = Benefited KHABAR, that means it has already been benefited in the past, but it could have a purpose in it for that it is been informed to the listener, such as blaming or condemning some one. “You woke up late today” (I know I woke up late) Purpose of KHABAR can be either Benefit or Benefited depending upon the person Various Purpose of KHABAR Seeking Mercy: Dua of Prophet Zakariya in Sura Mariam Verse 4 ك َربِّ َشقِ ًيا َ َقا َل َربِّ إِ ِّني َو َه َن ْال َع ْظ ُم ِم ِّني َوا ْش َت َع َل الرَّ ْأسُ َش ْيبًا َولَ ْم أَ ُكن ِب ُد َعا ِئ [Shakir 19:4] He said: My Lord! surely my bones are weakened and my head flares with hoariness, and, my Lord! I have never been unsuccessful in my prayer to Thee: Prophet Zakaria (AS) is informing God about his weakness but God is aware of it. Thus this is Benefited KHABAR (God already knows about it) Any communication to Allah will always be Benefited KHABAR because he knows already. Praise I’m from a brave nation Grieve / Mourning Tragedy of Karbala in a sad way Types of KHABAR Initial KHABAR (IBTIDAA’E): For a listener who does not have any knowledge about the content of the KHABAR, no emphases is used. Emphasized KHABAR (TALABI): For a listener who is hesitant about your KHABAR and not sure about its accuracy. It is preferred to emphasize this KHABAR with verily, surly and other tools of emphases (INNA, QADD, QASAM,…) Strongly emphasized KHABAR (INKAARI): The listener denies and refuses to accept the KHABAR. He must emphasize it using one or more tools of emphasis suitable for the degree of his denial in strength and weakness. INSHAA (Asking For) INSHAA are appealing sentences (requirement). Appealing sentences come in various styles: 1. Command (‘AMR) – Comes from Higher Authority to lower Authority. 2. General Command his solider, father command his son. NAHI – Prohibition- Avoidance is appealed (can be direct or indirect negative command) Do not drink wine 3. Interrogative – the answer is appealed 4. RAJAA’ (Hope ) – The appeal is from peers or from lower status people to higher status people. 5. TAMANEE– Wish – Appealing something difficult to achieve. 6. I wish I have a Lamborghini AN-NIDAA- Vocative – Appealing attention from called upon person or group INSHAA Note: The book mentions various types of nonappealing INSHAA which will be discussed in the next level. There are occasions when present tense is used as a form of command. An example would be the narrations of the Infallibles (AS). An example is when a person comes to the imam and mentions that his attire got impure. The response of the Imam is present tense prefixed by imperative LAAM. Thus the Infallible will say LEYAGHSIL (He should wash). Using the KHABAR as INSHAA As in the trade and transactions: Marriage contract Buying and selling Renting….etc. Forms of Command 1. Imperative Verb – EGHSIL 2. Present Tense prefixed with LAAM of Command : LEYAGHSIL 3. Noun of Imperative Verb (ISIM FE’L AMR) : HAAT MIN INDUK 4. MASDAR NAAE’B in FA’EL AMR – Infinitive that can be interpreted as command verb: Sabran Ya Ala Yasir Fa Inna Mowedeqo Jannah – Patience Oh Family of Yasir for surely your promised place is Heaven) (The command verb is Osbor but as you can see it is not used, and Sabran (infinitive) is interpreted as command) Form of Prohibition There is only one form of prohibition. Laa An-Naaheya (Prohibiting Laa) precedes the present tense such as the verse of Prohibiting Fornication : Wa Laa Taqrabu Zina. Forms of Interrogative Tools of interrogation Hamza: a’’ Anta Mohammadun? Are you Mohammad Hul: Hul Anta Mohammadun ? Are You Mohammad? Hamza and Hul could include two or more options in which the listener is required to chose one. In such a case Um (or) is used. A’’ Anta Mohammadun Um Aliyun? OR Hul Anta Mohammadun Um Aliyun? Mun (who) : This is used for intellectuals Maa (what) : It is used for non-intellectual thing or to ask your name or to ask further clarifaciton of the reality of a thing Mata (When) : It is used for asking about time in the past or future. Ay’yan (When) : It is asked for future only in a terrifying subject. Kayfa (How): Ask about the status Ayna (Where): Ask where Unna : Unna can mean How, When, or where. Kam (How Many/Much): Kam is used to ask about numbers Aye (Which) : To Define one of the two confused things such as time, number, thing, status, person,. Forms of Interrogative Notes: The Interrogative forms of sentences are used to seek answers of unknown information, however it could be used for other reasons such as :exclamation, astonishment, blaming, insulting, praising, condemning, amplifying (magnifying). Forms of : RAJAA’ and TAMANEE TAMANEE: Desiring things that are either impossible or highly difficult to attain. Layta (hope), Hal, Low (hope) and La’ala can be used. Note: If the desirable was achievable then it will be considered Hope (Rajaa’) and it will be expressed by La’lala (Maybe) or Asa (Maybe) Forms of AN-NIDAA An-Nidaa has 8 tools: ." و"وا،" و"ه َيا،" و"آي" و"أَيا،" و"آ،" و" َيا،"و"أي Hamza and Aye are used to call someone nearby. All the other tools are used for someone far away. Sometimes the far person can be caled by Hamza and Aye because he is closest to the heart or present in the mind. Sometimes the closest person can be used with the tools of furtherest due to high rank, Low status, or heedlessness. The Nidaa can divert from its purpose of calling someone to metaphorical purposes indicated by context clues such as regret or temptation. ALQASR –AL HASR (Restricting-limiting) AlQasro (Al-Hasro) – Restricting Phrase ADAAT ALHASR: Particles used for restriction (INNAMA, MAA+ILLA, LAA+ILLA ) Mohammad is None but Messenger (MAA=ILLA) There is no god but Allah (LAA+ILLA) We are restricting God to be None but Allah We are restringing Mohammad is nothing but a Messenger ALQASR (Specification) Forms of Restrictions: 1. Using negating Laa and excluding tool of Illah such as Laa Ilaha ILLA AIlah – There is no god except Allah. 2. Inna + Ma = Innama which means NONE but such as Innama Waliykom Aliyun- Your Authority is none but Ali. (Innama Waliylkumullah wa rasololoho…) 3. Conjunction with Laa (not) or Bul (more than that it is) such as The Earth is not fixed but moving . Here we used Laa. Aliyun Hayy Laa Mayait Ali is living not dead. 4. Using Maa and Bal. Maa Aliyun Mayatiun Bal Hay. – Ali is not dead but living . Lakin can be used instead of Bal: Maa Aliyun Mayatiun LakinHay. 5. Advancing a delayed component of a sentence such as preceding khabar and delaying mobtada, or delaying the verb BE Aliyin Naktadi – Ali is who we follow that means we don’t follow anyone other than Ali EEJAAZ (Synopsis ), ITNAAB (Expansion), MOSAAWAAT (Equality ) Mosaawaat (equality) the meaning in the sentence is equal to the words and the words are equal to the meaning, there is no increase on each other. َّ صالَ َة َوآ ُتو ْا ّللا ِب َما َّ َوأَ ِقيمُو ْا ال ِ َالز َكا َة َو َما ُت َق ِّدمُو ْا ألَنفُ ِس ُكم مِّنْ َخي ٍْر َت ِج ُدوهُ ِعند َ َّّللا إِن صير ِ ون َب َ َُتعْ َمل [Shakir 2:110] And keep up prayer and pay the poorrate and whatever good you send before for yourselves, you shall find it with Allah; surely Allah sees what you do. Allah (SWT) used direct words for direct meanings, no less in words or meaning. They are equal. There is nothing implicit or extra assume: whatever good you send before for yourselves, you shall find it with Allah EEJAAZ (Synopsis ) Eejaaz (Synopsis) : There are words that are implicit and meaning is presented without words therefore the words are less and the meanings are more. Sura Fajr Verse 22 ُ َك َو ْال َمل ص ًفا َ ص ًفا َ ك َ َو َجاء َر ُّب [Shakir 89:22] And your Lord comes and (also) the angels in ranks, Lord does not come so there is something mistake. There is an implicit word of Amr or Yowm (Jaa a Rabbuka Amr or Yowm , thus that means the meaning is more than the words. There are several verses in the quran that has Eejaaz, such as people will be looking at their Lord, people will be looking at the Bounties of the Lord. Ask the city, it should be Asking the People of the City. ITNAAB (Expansion) The words are more than the meaning. Sura Noah Verse 28 ْ َِّرب ت َو ََل ِ ين َو ْالم ُْؤ ِم َنا َ اغفِرْ لِي َولِ َوالِدَيَّ َولِ َمن دَ َخ َل َب ْي ِت َي م ُْؤ ِم ًنا َولِ ْلم ُْؤ ِم ِن َّ َتز ِد ين إِ ََّل َت َبارً ا َ الظالِ ِم ِ [Shakir 71:28] My Lord! forgive me and my parents and him who enters my house believing, and the believing men and the believing women; and do not increase the unjust in aught but destruction! Itnaab occurs in the above Ayat when he is asking forgiveness for the believers entering his house then it includes in his dua for the believing men and believing women. Thus the sentence “ who enters my house beliving” is Itnaab. In Quran Itnaab happened with a purpose. ITNAAB (Expansion) Purposes of ITNAAB: ITNAAB could be done for one of the following reasons: 1. Specifying the general to give alert to the specific 2. Generalizing a specific to stretch the benefit of specific to the general category 3. Elaboration after vagueness of the meaning 4. Repetition to emphasize the meaning either to convince or to regret 5. Interrupting / Parenthetical Sentence will be discussed in the higher level. Eloquent of the meanings of various types of sentences As mentioned when discussing the purpose of predicate / KHABAR that predicate can be used for various purposes other than just informing someone about something. Sometimes the KHABAR / predicate sentence might serve an appealing purpose or indicate a denial of something or express grieve and sadness, weakness, or any type of thing that is known to the listener where the original meaning of KHABAR is to inform someone who does not have knowledge about the predicate / KHABAR. And this kind of deviation in using the KHABAR away from using it for real purpose is an art and requires skilled people to use it properly and to create an impact in the heart of the listener. If not used properly the listener might end up into confusion thus instead of creating eloquence, vagueness is created. Eloquent of the meanings of various types of sentences The same can be said about expanding a sentence or creating a synopsis. A person might expand but it can become unnecessarily boring and might present a synopsis but important points might be eliminated due to the improper brevity of that sentence. Thus it requires skill as well to create proper impact in the heart of the listener.