Prefixation

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Word-formation
BASE ( as distinct from STEM- a part of the word remaining after every
affix has been removed)
e.g. friend – stem
friendly= friend+ly ( stem = base + affix)
unfriendly = un + friendly (friendly is a base but not the stem)
Derivation:
friend
friend+ly
un+friend+ly
un+friend+li-ness
noun
noun >adjective
adjective > adjective
adjective > noun
Chief processes by which the BASE may be modified:
AFFIXATION
a)
Prefixation -adding a prefix to the base, with or without a change of
word-class
e.g. author – co-author
b)
Suffixation- adding a suffix to the base, with or without a change of
word-class
e.g. drive – driver
CONVERSION (‘zero affixation’) assigning the base to a different word
class without changing its form ( e.g. drive v.- drive n.)
COMPOUNDING – adding one base to another ( hang+man=hangman)
• Prefixation
• Generally does not alter the word-class of the base
• Productive prefixes have a light stress on their first syllable eg.
/pre’fabricated/
• Negative prefixes
meaning
example
• UNthe opposite of, not
unfair
• NONnot
non-smoker
• IN-/IL-/IM-/IRnot
insane
• DISnot
dislike
• Alacking in
amoral
Prefixation
Reversative
meaning
or privative prefixes
UNto reverse action
to deprive of
DEto reverse action
DISto reverse /deprive
examples
Pejorative prefixes
MISMALPSEUDO-
examples
misinform
malfunction
pseudo-intellectual
meaning
wrongly
badly
false/imitation
untie
unhorse
deforestation
disconnect
Prefixation
Prefixes of degree/ size
• ARCH• SUPER• OUT• SUR• SUB• OVER• UNDER• HYPER• ULTRA• MINI-
meaning
highest, worst
above, more than better
to do sth. faster, longer…
over and above
lower/less than
too much
too little
extremely
extremely, beyond
little
examples
archduke
supernatural
outlive
surtax
substandard
overconfident
underprivileged
hypercritical
ultra-modern
mini-van
Prefixation
• Prefixes of attitude
COCOUNTERANTIPRO-
Locative prefixes
SUPERSUBINTERTRANS-
meaning
with, joint
in opposition to
against
on the side of
examples
cooperate
counteract
anti-clockwise
pro-Common Market
over
beneath, lesser in rank
between, among
across, from one place
to another
superstructure
subconscious
international
transplant
Prefixation
•
•
•
•
•
•
Prefixes of time/order
FOREPREPOSTEXRE-
•
•
•
•
•
Number prefixes
UNI-, MONO
BI-, DI-,
TRIMULTY-, POLY-
meaning
before
before
after
former
again, back
one
two
three
many
examples
forknowledge
pre-marital
post-war
ex-husband
re-evaluate
unilateral
bilingual
tripartite
multi-racial
Prefixation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Other prefixes
AUTOself
autobiography
NEOnew, revived
neo-Gothic
PANall. world-wide pan-American
PROTOfirst, original
prototype
SEMIhalf
semicircle
VICE
deputy
vice-president
Conversion prefixes
BEN to Adj.
bewigged, bespectacled
ENN to V
enslave
AV to predicative Adj.
afloat
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