Outcome: Geography & Early Republic

advertisement
Ancient Rome
& The Origin of Christianity
Geography & Early Republic
1.
Setting the Stage
a.
b.
With the defeat of the Persians by Alexander and the eventual
decline of the Greek Civilization, power would eventually shift west
towards the Italian peninsula
The Romans would build an amazing empire filled with many
different cultures and help spawn a brand new religion: Christianity
Geography & Early Republic
2.
Origins of Rome
a.
b.
c.
Legend says that twins Romulus and Remus were abandoned on
the Tiber River and raised by a she-wolf
Later the two boys decided to build a city
Eventually Romulus kills Remus & city of Rome is named after Romulus
Geography & Early Republic
4.
The First Romans
a. Three groups settled on Italian Peninsula from 1000-500 B.C.
i.
The Latins
1. Built original settlement of wooden huts
2. Considered to be the first Romans
3. Helped spread Latin derived languages to the area
Geography & Early Republic
ii.
The Greeks
1. Moved north into Italy during decline of Hellenistic Culture
2. Settled in Southern Italy and Sicily
3. Brought all of Italy, including Rome, into contact with the
Greek civilization
4. Brought architecture, democracy, and philosophy
Geography & Early Republic
iii. The Etruscans
1. Skilled metal workers native to northern Italy
2. Strongly influenced Roman civilization
3. Influenced Roman arch
4. Influenced Roman lust for killing (ex. Gladiator battles)
Geography & Early Republic
5.
Early Rome
a.
b.
c.
d.
Early Etruscan kings and successors built temples and public
centers in Rome
The Forum was the heart of the Roman political life
After Rome’s last king was driven from power in 509 B.C for being too
harsh, the Romans declared they would never again be ruled by a king
Instead they established a republic, which meant “public affairs”
e.
A republic is a form of government in which power rests with citizens who
have the right to vote for their leaders
f.
In Rome, citizenship with voting rights was granted only to free-born
male citizens
Geography & Early Republic
6.
People of Rome
a.
b.
c.
Rome was divided up into several different groups who struggled for power
Patricians: wealthy landowners who held most of the power
Plebeians: the common farmers, artisans, and merchants; majority of pop.
Geography & Early Republic
e.
Consuls: two officials with limited power and one year terms; one
controlled the army the other directed the government
f.
Dictator: in times of crisis, the republic could appoint a leader with absolute
power to make laws and control the army; power lasted for 6 months
g.
Legions: military units made up of 5,000 soldiers
Geography & Early Republic
7.
Roman Power Expands
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Steadily the Romans conquered the Italian Peninsula
As Rome conquered lands, people were absorbed into their ever
growing territory
Some people were accepted as citizens, others simply became allies
Rome went to war against Carthage; a powerful city in North Africa
The struggle became known as the Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.)
Geography & Early Republic
Carthage was led by a brilliant general named Hannibal
g. Hannibal assembled an army of 50,000 infantry, 9,000 cavalry, and 60
elephants intent on capturing Rome
h. He led his troops up through Spain and crossed the Alps into Italy
f.
Geography & Early Republic
i.
j.
k.
The Romans regrouped and prevented Hannibal from sacking Rome
Rome defeated Hannibal in 202 B.C. near Zama
Rome eventually defeated Carthage in the third Punic War extending
its power across the Mediterranean Sea
Geography & Early Republic

Rome’s territory and power would only get bigger and stronger…
A Republic Becomes an Empire
1.
Setting the Stage
a. With the defeat of Carthage in the Punic Wars, Rome
was proving to be the biggest and most powerful
civilization on the Mediterranean
b. The larger Rome’s territory got, the more unstable
the republic form of government became
A Republic Becomes an Empire
2.
The Republic collapses
a. Rome’s increasing wealth and expanding territories
brought problems
i. Discontent among lower classes
ii. Breakdown in military order
Roman Coins
A Republic Becomes an Empire
b. Economic Turmoil
Gap between rich and poor widened
ii. Rich lived on huge estates
iii. Poor worked on estates (possibly as slaves)
iv. By 100 B.C. one-third of Rome’s population
were enslaved
i.
A Republic Becomes an Empire
3.
Julius Caesar
a. 60 B.C. joins with Crassus (wealthy Roman)
and Pompey (popular general) to create a
Triumvirate
b. Triumvirate: a group of three rulers
c. They rule together for 10 years
A Republic Becomes an Empire
d. Caesar takes power
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
Caesar has success in Gaul (France), becomes quite
popular
Political rival Pompey urges the senate to disband Caesar’s
legions
Caesar defies senate, marches into Rome
Pompey flees
Caesar defeats Pompey’s troops in Greece, Asia, Spain, and
Egypt
Julius Caesar returns home in 46 B.C.- senate appoints him
dictator
44 B.C. Caesar is named dictator for life
Result: Even though Caesar has total control, Rome still
embraces some of its republic roots, however it is moving closer
to empire
A Republic Becomes an Empire
4.
Julius Caesar’s legacy
a. Absolute ruler but he also expanded the senate
b. Granted citizenship to people in Roman provinces
c. Helped poor by creating jobs and building projects
d. Increased pay for soldiers
A Republic Becomes an Empire
e. Beware the Ides of March
Many nobles and senators expressed concern
over Caesar’s growing power, success, and
popularity; feared losing their influence
ii. Others considered Caesar a tyrant
iii. Many felt Rome would suffer due to his ego
i.
iv. Caesar is stabbed to death in the senate by a
gang of senators led by Marcus Brutus and
Gaius Cassius
on March 15, 44 B.C.
A Republic Becomes an Empire
5.
Octavian
a. Caesar’s 18 year old nephew and adopted son
b. Mark Antony falls in love with Queen Cleopatra of
Egypt
c. Octavian accuses Antony of plotting to rule Rome
from Egypt and this leads to another civil war
d. Mark Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide; leaving
Octavian sole leader
e. Octavian takes name Augustus meaning “exalted
one” -27 B.C.
Rome’s Best Emperors
 Octavian Augustus

First Roman Emperor

Senate named him Augustus
meaning “revered personage”
or “exhalted one” in 27 BC

Rules from 27 BC to 14 AD

Ended years of civil war

Was not interested in
dictatorial rule; shared power
with close advisors

Successfully discharged
soliders reducing army (still
kept 28 legions for auxillery
strength)

Died of illness on August 19,
14 AD
Rome’s Best Emperors
 Marcus Aurelius
 Ruled
from 161-180
AD
 Gifted
general
 Philosopher
 Empire
began to
erode under his son
Commodus (end of
Pax Romana)
A Republic Becomes an Empire
i.
Result: Rome is officially an empire.
A Republic Becomes an Empire
6.
A Vast and Powerful Empire
a. Peak of Rome’s power 27 B.C. to 180 A.D.
b. Period known as the Pax Romana or “Roman
Peace”
c. Population of 60-80 million with 1 million in the
city of Rome
d. Rome held together through efficient means of
government started by Augustus however many
terrible emperors would gradually weaken the
empire over the next 400 years
e. Common coinage made trade easier
A Republic Becomes an Empire
f. “All roads lead to Rome;” the Romans built about
250,000 miles of roads
A Republic Becomes an Empire
h. 90 % of the population were poor and slavery was
common
i. The Colosseum was used to distract the masses
because much of city of Rome was unemployed;
gladiatorial battles were popular for entertainment
j. Rich continued to live extravagantly
A Republic Becomes an Empire
j. Coming up next: The works of Jesus of Nazareth and
Christianity would change the world forever
Download
Related flashcards

Ancient Roman religion

21 cards

Roman law

47 cards

Ancient Romans

14 cards

Roman Empire

18 cards

Create Flashcards