Module 1 exam review

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World History
Mrs. Damonte
Room 104
Module 1 Review
Online content
Mrs. Damonte 2013-2014
1.01 Set the Stage
Byzantine Empire:
•
Roman Empire became too big
•
Difficult to govern
•
Conflicts between Roman
leaders and Barbarian
invaders weakened the
Empire.
•
Diocltian divided the
Empire in two:
•
Western Roman Empire:
Rome its capital
•
Eastern Roman Empire:
Constantinople its
capital
•
One emperor per side:
•
Western:
Diocletian
•
Eastern:
Constantine I
1.01 How did the Byzantine Empire Developed?
Byzantine Empire lasted
1000 years:
• Many changes: bigger &
smaller
• Invasions,
conflicts, and poor
rulers weakened the
empire.
• At its height with
Justinian I
• Eastern Roman Empire
lands + some Western
• Important cities:
• Capital, religious,
and economic center
Eastern Empire:
Constantinople
• Religious center in
Africa: Alexandria
in Egypt
• Government seat for
Far Eastern Empire:
Antioch in Syria
• Government center in
Italy: Ravenna
1.02 Monotheistic Religions
•
•
•
Where are they predominant?
•
Judaism: Israel and North
America
•
Christianity: Europe;
North, Central & South
America
•
Islam: Northern Africa,
Western Asia, some islands
of the Pacific.
Jerusalem:
•
Important to all three
religions.
•
Wailing Wall, Rock of the
Dome, Church of The
Nativity
& Holly Sepulcher.
Birth of Monotheism:
•
Southeast Asia.
•
Founder: Abraham
•
•
Abrahamic religions
Basic belief: one god.
1.02 Monotheistic Religions
•
Holy Books:
•
Judaism:
•
Torah: history
and revelations
before and after
Moses.
•
Christianity:
•
Old
Testament:
basically
the Torah
•
New
Testament:
life and
teachings of
Jesus as
told by his
disciples.
•
Islam:
•
Qur’an: words of
god to Muhammad.
All three religions share:
• Believe in one god with different names
• All three honor the ten commandments.
• All practice fasting.
• All three honor a day of the week:
• Jews: Saturday-Sabbath
• Christians: Sunday
• Muslims: Friday
• All three believe in afterlife.
• All three believe humans have soul.
Only Christians:
• Sacraments and resurrection of Jesus
Only Muslims:
• Five Pillars: declaration of faith, prayer,
• Almsgiving, fasting & pilgrimage to Meca
Judaism and Islam:
• Food taboos:
• Jews: Kosher
• Muslims: halal
1.02 Monotheistic Religions
Sacred sites and symbols:
•
Judaism:
•
Star of David
•
Wailing Wall (Temple Mount):
meeting place for all three
religions.
•
Cave of the Patriarchs
•
Congregations led by Rabbi
•
Islam:
•
Star and Crescent
•
Kaaba in Mecca
•
The Green Dome of Medina
•
Congregations led by Imans
•
Christianity:
•
Cross
•
Church of the Holly Sepulcher
•
Church of the Nativity
•
Congregations led by priests.
1.02 Monotheistic Religions
•
Judaism:
•
•
•
Hassidic
Reform
Christianity:
•
Roman Catholic
•
•
Protestant:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Lutheranism
Presbytarianism
Anglican
Baptist
Methodist
Quaker
Unitarian
Eastern Orthodox
•
•
Pope in Rome
Patriarch in Greece
Islam:
•
•
Summis
Shias
1.03 Expansion of Islam
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fastest growing religion
Originated in the Arabian
Peninsula.
Muhammad is its prophet
Total submission to god
Medina is the city of the
prophet
Muslim is the one that
submits to god.
Allah: god
Islam begins with Hijra
•
•
Pilgrimage of
Muhammad from
Mecca to Medina
Muhammad dies in 632
1.03 Spread of Islam
•
•
•
612-632:
•
612-Mohammad received
revelations from god.
•
632-Conquered tribes adopted
Islam.
•
Control large portion of
Arabian Peninsula
•
Muhammad died
632-661
•
First four rulers after
Muhammad-Four Rightly Guided
Caliphs
•
Defeated Persians and
Byzantines
•
Control Arabian Peninsula,
Persia, Syria, & Egypt
661-750
•
661-the last Rightly Guided
Caliph was murdered
•
Split into Sunny & Shia
•
Raise of the Umayyad
Caliphate
•
Expanded into Spain, North
Africa, and Central Asia
• 750-1258:
• Umayyad out of power; Abbasid
raided to power
• Umayyad escaped-established
empire in Spain. 700 years
• Persian rulers adopted Islam.
• Traders spread the religion into
West & East Africa.
• From India into China & Southeast
Asia.
• 1258-1683
• 13th century in Southeast Asia &
North Africa.
• Ottomans conquered
Constantinople. Expanded to Arab,
Persian, and North Europe lands.
• Mongols adopted Islam=New
Empire in India.
1.03 Spread of Islam
1- Expansion under Muhammad: 622-632
2- Expansion under the Rashidum Caliphate: 632-661
3- Expansion under the Umayyad Caliphate: 661-670
1
1
2
1
2
3
1
1.03 The March of Islam
1.03 Islam in India: The Mughal Empire
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
First came to India w/Arab merchants
11th century
Mamluks gained power-overthrew
Abbasid N. Africa & SW Asia12th
century.
Mongols dominated most of Asia
Not all India converted. Some went to
Hinduism.
16th century Mongols overthrew the
Delhi Sultanate-established the
Mughal Empire.
Muslim empire did not last-remains a
powerful religion.
From India to Malaysia and Indonesia.
Very powerful.
1.04 The Golden Age of Islam
•
What is a “golden age”?
•
•
Great time of achievement
Many factors helped with this Golden
Age:
•
Qur’an:
•
•
•
•
•
Islamic law and Arabic ruled
the Empire
Discovered of Chinese
papermaking process
•
•
principles of respect for all and
knowlegde.
Did not force conversion
Higher taxes for non-Muslims
Further knowledge and
economy
House of Wisdon-Baghdad
•
•
Translate great works of
literature into Arabic.
Preserved Greek and Roman
classics
Islamic Golden Age Achievements
•
Art:
•
•
•
•
Arabic numerals adapted from
Hindu
Idea of zero=algebra
Science:
•
•
•
Arabesques
Pottery
Geometry and astronomy
Beginning of scientific method
Medicine:
•
•
Anatomy
Avicenna:
• Cannon-book
• Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Architecture:
•
•
Mathematic:
•
•
•
•
•
Literature:
•
•
Complex in color and arabesques
Simple outside, ornate inside
Archways and geometric patterns
One Thousand and One Nights or
Arabian Nighs
Calligraphy:
•
•
Intricate lettering
Especially used in the Qur’an
1.05 The Byzantine Empire
•
Eastern Roman Empire
•
•
Constantine I rebuild it
•
•
•
Constantinople=Byzantium
•
Considerer themselves Romans
Now called Byzantines
• 11th
•
•
4th century
•
•
Look like Old Rome
Known as New Rome
People living in Constantinople
•
•
century:
Disagreement over the rule of
the Roman Church
Split in the Empire
• Western and Eastern
•
•
Eastern Roman Empire thrived
Western Roman Empire declined
• Invasions
• Declining economy
• Poor leadership
476 CE collapsed
• Known as the “Fall of Rome”
Germanic kingdoms claimed
Roman lands
• Roads and structures fell into
disrepair
• Commerce collapse
• Roman Catholic Church
became a powerful force in
Western Europe
1.05 The Byzantine Empire
•
Eastern emperors kept a
strong army
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Constantinople survived another
1000 years
Continue with Roman law and
traditions
Justinian codified Roman Law
Revived Hellenistic (Greek) art
and literature
Credited with maintaining the
Greek and Roman knowledge
that we still use today.
Latin was the official language of
the Empire
Most people spoke Greek
•
The Byzantine emperors
•
•
•
Far away from Rome
Thought to have authority over the
whole Roman Empire including
Roman Church
• The emperor final authority
• Patriarchs and bishops
answered to the Emperor not
the pope
Christianity:
•
•
Helped unified the people of the
Byzantine Empire
8th & 9th cneturies
• Iconoclast controversy
Reverence to figures and
painting
• Forbidden in the Bible
•
1.05 The Byzantine Empire
•
Iconoclast controversy:
•
•
•
•
•
Lasted more than 100 years
Became political
Emperor did not need church in
Rome to ban icons
People who supported
icons=persecuted &
excommunicated
• Could not partake in
communion
Broke relations between West
and East
• Charlemagne crowned
emperor of the West 800 CE
• Church did not recognized
Eastern Emperor as head of
the church
•
Other issues:
•
•
•
Leavened bread in mass against
unleavened
Power of the pope:
• Emperor over the Patriarch
• Constantinople as a Christian
city center as equal to Rome
Schism:
•
•
•
•
1054
Pope excommunicated Patriarch
Patriarch excommunicated Pope
Split in the Church
• West Roman Catholic
•
• East
•
Pope and Rome
Eastern Orthodox
Patriarch and Constantinole
Similarities and Differences Between the two Churches
•
Roman Catholic
Church:
•
•
•
•
•
Latin official
language
Pope highest
authority
Priests can’t
marry
Married
couples could
not divorce
Centered in
Rome
•
Similarities
•
•
•
•
Based on
teachings of
Jesus and Bible
Sacraments
Have priests
and bishops
Seek to convert
others to
Christianity
•
Eastern Orthodox
Church
•
•
•
•
•
Greek official
language
Patriarch and
bishops as
leaders
Priests can
marry
Married couples
could divorce
Centered in
Constantinople
•
1.06 The Byzantine Empire: Achievement and Expansion
395 to 1025 CE
•
•
Most powerful empire
Constantinople
• Capital
• Economic, cultural,
& political center
• Contributions in
art, architecture,
language, & law.
•
•
•
Code of law
influenced
countries for
centuries
US
Constantinople:
•
•
•
Constantine founded in
330 CE
Capital of the Eastern
Roman Empire
Located in two
continents:
• Europe: Bosphorus
• Controlled land and
sea trade routes
between Europe and
Asia
Constantinople’s Location
•
Between Europe and Asia
•
•
Culture influenced both regions
Architecture combined both styles
• Hagia Sophia
•
•
•
Christian Church
1453 Turks converted to a
mosque
Byzantine society
• Upper class:
•
•
•
Middle class:
•
•
•
•
Justinian I
•
•
•
•
•
•
Small percentage
Shopkeepers & small scale
merchants
Lower class:
•
•
Small percentage
Aristocrats of Roman descent,
wealthy landowner
•
•
Majority
Poor workers & serfs
Slaves:
•
•
•
Large percentage
Owned by wealthy aristocrats or
government
Worked in private residences,
mines, & farms
•
527 became emperor
Not son of preceding ruler
Born of peasant origins
Imperial succession not hereditary
Wife: Theodora
• Not upper class either
Husband and wife different parties
• Justinian blue
• Theodora greens
Both parties revolt:
• Nika Rebellion
• 532 CE
Bribed blues to leave the greeens
Byzantine Empire 1360
1.07 Collapse of An Empire
•
Constantine I contributed to
the collapse
•
•
•
Constant wars
• Rebuilding of
Constantinople
• Economic troubles
Army scattered across the land
• Lombards conquered
northern Italy
Bubonic plague also Justinian
Plague
• Killed millions
• Shortage of human power
•
The Crusades and the weaken of
the Empire
•
•
•
•
•
1st Crusade
• Latins settle in Constantinople
• Resentment between Latins
and Byzantines
1100s Venice gains control over
Byzantine trade routes
4th Crusade
• Latins take hold of
Constantinople
1250 CE emperor Michael VIII
restores the Byzantine Empire
1300s Ottomans Turks conquered
Byzantine territory in Asia Minor
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