Topic Sentence - writing1howard

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Writing 1
Katherine Howard
Process Paragraph
Do Now
• Put your Like-Journal in the box.
• Get out your notecards.
• Find someone you haven’t met yet and sit
next to that person.
What gets wetter and wetter the more it dries?
Today
• Like Journals
• Review topic sentence, support sentences,
details, transitions and conclusions.
• Read an article
• Practice topic sentences
• Discuss pre-writing techniques
• Begin writing a paragraph
The Paragraph is a Sandwich
Transition
cheese
Topic Sentence
bread
Detail
lettuce
Conclusion
bread
Support Sentence
meat
Notecards
•
•
•
•
Get out your notecards.
Shuffle them so they are not in order.
Switch with a partner.
Order the notecards using time words to help
you figure out where things go.
Next, I took my bags
and boarded the
train.
Turn-in Notecards
Narratives
Goldilocks and the Three Bears
One sunny day, Goldilocks was out for a walk
and came across a house. She went inside. First, she
went into the kitchen and found three bowls of
porridge. She tasted the first bowl. It was too hot.
She tasted the second bowl. It was too cold. She
tasted the third bowl. It was just right. She ate it all
up. Next, she went into the living room and saw
three chairs. She tried out the first chair. It was too
hard. She tried the second chair. It was too soft. She
tried the third chair. It was just right. Uh-oh! The
chair broke! Finally, she went into the bedroom and
saw three beds. She tried the first bed. It was too
flat. She tried the second bed. It was too bumpy. She
tried the third bed. It was just right! She fell asleep.
About an hour later, the bears came home and they
found her sleeping in Baby Bear’s bed. They woke her
up. She was so scared that she screamed. She
jumped out of the bed and ran home. Goldilocks
learned never to go into someone’s house when
that person isn’t home.
Puzzling Question
How did Goldilocks get in?
Process Paragraph
There are many types of paragraphs. Some show
a series of steps. This is called a process
paragraph.
Process paragraphs show time order. They
discuss how to do something. They list things in
the order in which someone will accomplish
them.
Topic Sentence
A process paragraph begins with a topic sentence
that names the topic and tells the reader to look for
a process or procedure. Use words such as steps,
procedure, directions, suggestions, and
instructions.
• You can teach your dog to fetch in a very short
time by following this procedure.
• Making a pizza is easy if you follow these
instructions.
• Follow these steps to throw a Frisbee accurately.
Topic Sentences are Important!
Pg 39 – Chapter 3
The topic sentence is the most important
sentence in a paragraph. It has two parts: a topic
and a controlling idea. The topic names the
subject of the paragraph. The controlling idea
tells what the paragraph will say about the
topic.
Topic Sentence
A process paragraph also has a controlling idea. This
is the specific information you will discuss about the
topic. It limits the topic. It helps you come up with a
reason to write. And gives the reader a
questionable statement.
• You can teach your dog to fetch in a very short
time by following this procedure.
• Making a pizza is easy if you follow these
instructions.
• Follow these steps to throw a Frisbee accurately.
Discuss
With a partner talk about what information the
paragraph for each of the following topic sentences
might contain.
• To have a very elaborate wedding, follow these
procedures.
• A simple wedding is easy if you follow these
directions.
• Having a wedding in an unusual location can be
fun if you take several steps.
Where does the topic sentence go?
Pg 40
The topic sentence is usually the first sentence
in a paragraph. Experienced writers sometimes
put topic sentences at the end, but the best
place is usually right at the beginning. A topic
sentence at the beginning of a paragraph gives
readers an idea of what they will read. This
helps them understand the paragraph easily.
NO SURPRISES!!!
Summary
• Topic – what the whole
paragraph will be about.
It is the subject of the
whole paragraph.
• Controlling idea – relates
to the topic. It is the part
of the sentence which
provides a questionable
statement. It explains
what kind of information
you will provide
throughout the
paragraph.
General vs Specific
soccer
watching
baseball
hockey
playing
SPORTS
swimming
basketball
General vs Specific
A topic sentence is neither too general, nor too specific.
GENERAL
Marriage is an event
in a person’s life.
SPECIFC
The average age for people
in the United States to
marry in the year 2000 was
25 for a woman and 27 for
a man.
JUST RIGHT
The average age for
people in the United
States to marry has
changed in the past 100
years.
General vs Specific
Place a check next to the sentences that are good topic
sentences.
1. It is estimated that 20 percent of Japanese marriages
are arranged.
2. In Japan, there are two types of marriage.
3. Digital cameras have several advantages over film
cameras.
4. Digital cameras take photos.
5. Digital cameras are composed of small squares, just
like a tiled kitchen floor or bathroom wall.
6. 6. Learning the meanings of abbreviations used in the
field of technology is like learning a new language.
General vs Specific
7. PC, PDA, GPS, and Wifi are abbreviations.
8. A PDA can perform a variety of useful functions.
9. Consider these four factors when choosing a
college.
10. Golden retriever dogs have certain
characteristics that make them good family pets.
11. I am considering event planning as a career.
12. A paramedic should have three characteristics.
Pg 94-95 – Chapter 6
A process paragraph explains how to make or do
something, so they are also called how to
paragraphs. To explain how to do something
clearly, break the process down into a series of
steps and explain each step.
Process Topic Sentence
Pg 42 – C1
To obtain a teaching license, students should follow a number of procedures.
First of all, teachers must know their subject very well. At a
minimum, they should take several college courses and pass a
written test in every subject that they teach. Also, they should
take refresher classes every few years to keep their
knowledge up-to-date. Third, teachers should take education
classes in college to learn how to teach. Fourth, they should
have spent at least on year practice-teaching. Practiceteaching is teaching real children in a real classroom under the
supervision of an experienced teacher. Only after a person has
met these requirements should he or she receive a teaching
license.
Write a the topic sentence for this paragraph.
pg 95
How to Build a One-Match Campfire
Building a campfire that you can light with one match is
simple if you follow these easy steps. The first step is to
prepare a safe place for your campfire. Clear an area on the
ground at least 3 feet wide, and put a circle of stones around
it. Second, gather fuel. You will need several sizes of fuel:
small twigs, medium sticks, and large sticks. The next step is to
build a tepee. Put a handful of twigs in a small pile and use
the small sticks to build a small tepee over the pile. Leave
spaces large enough to drop a lighted match through. Next,
build a cabin around the tepee using the medium sticks. Fifth,
place two large pieces of wood on either side of the cabin,
and lay two or three long sticks on top to make a loose roof.
The last step is to light a match and drop it through a space in
the tepee. Soon you will enjoy the warmth of a nice fire, and
your friends will admire your skill at lighting a campfire with
only one match!
Questions
1. What is the topic sentence?
a. Topic
b. Controlling Idea
1. How many steps are there?
2. What does the last sentence do?
How to Build a One-Match Campfire
Building a campfire that you can light with one match is
simple if you follow these easy steps. The first step is to
prepare a safe place for your campfire. Clear an area on the
ground at least 3 feet wide, and put a circle of stones around
it. Second, gather fuel. You will need several sizes of fuel:
small twigs, medium sticks, and large sticks. The next step is to
build a tepee. Put a handful of twigs in a small pile and use
the small sticks to build a small tepee over the pile. Leave
spaces large enough to drop a lighted match through. Next,
build a cabin around the tepee using the medium sticks. Fifth,
place two large pieces of wood on either side of the cabin,
and lay two or three long sticks on top to make a loose roof.
The last step is to light a match and drop it through a space in
the tepee. Soon you will enjoy the warmth of a nice fire, and
your friends will admire your skill at lighting a campfire with
only one match!
Suggestion / advice
Remember!
• You want a process topic sentence!
• Use words such as steps, procedure,
directions, suggestions, and instructions.
• Discuss how-to or explain the steps you took
to do this task.
Practice Topic Sentences
Pg 96
With a partner, write a topic sentence for each of the following. ONLY
A TOPIC SENETENCE!
1. How to register for classes at your school.
2. How to meet people in a new place
3. How to get the job of your dreams
4. How to prepare for a job interview
5. How to live on a tight budget
6. How to make ceviche, sushi, satay, egg rols, dulce de leche, or any
dish popular in your culture
7. How to make a pinata, a cofetti egg, a decorated egg, a May
basket, a paper flower, or any creaft item
8. How to change the oil in a car, a flat tire, build a kite, catch a fish
or crab, or any other skill
Puzzling Question
How did Goldilocks get in?
Goldilocks and
The Three Bears
is a narrative. It
tells a story. How
she got in a
Process
Paragraph.
Topic Sentence:
To get into the
house, Goldilocks
did several things.
To + topic with controlling idea, +
subject + process step statement.
Now that you know how to write a
topic sentence, it’s time to pick a
topic!
PREWRITING is important.
This is so important when writing!
You want to plan and organize your writing!
Pg 16 – Chapter 1
The first step in writing a paragraph is called
prewriting. Prewriting is a way to get ideas. In
this step, you will choose a topic and collect
ideas to explain the topic.
Listing. There are several techniques you can
use to get ideas. In this chapter, you will practice
a technique called listing.
Puzzling Question
How did Goldilocks get in?
Goldilocks and
The Three Bears
is a narrative. It
tells a story. How
she got in a
Process
Paragraph.
Topic Sentence:
To get into the
house, Goldilocks
did several things.
What SEVERAL THINGS
did she do?
Listing is on pg. 16
How to Get into a House
With a partner, discuss all the steps. Use
personal experience as a guide. Make a list.
1. Ring the doorbell
2. Take out the credit card
3. Try to open the door
4. Go around back and try that door
5. Check the window
6. Use the card to get into the house
Are these in order from the first to the last? How can you re-arrange them?
List Steps
Pg 96
Select one prompt. List the steps to complete this process.
1. How to register for classes at your school.
2. How to meet people in a new place
3. How to get the job of your dreams
4. How to prepare for a job interview
5. How to live on a tight budget
6. How to make ceviche, sushi, satay, egg rols, dulce de leche, or any
dish popular in your culture
7. How to make a pinata, a cofetti egg, a decorated egg, a May
basket, a paper flower, or any creaft item
8. How to change the oil in a car, a flat tire, build a kite, catch a fish
or crab, or any other skill
Select a topic from pg 96
Make a list of all the steps/procedures.
Place them in time order.
Time Order Signals
pg 97
Sentence Connectors
Others
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
2. The first step…
The next step…
The final step….
3. After five minutes,
4. After you take the pizza out of the
oven,
First, (Second, etc.)
Then (no comma)
Now (no comma)
Next,
Finally,
After that
Meanwhile
Organization
Outlines help you
organize your
information.
Draft a Paragraph
After we pre-write, we write a draft!
As You Write…
Unity: all sentences
are related to the
topic.
Coherence: all
sentences are in
order and flow.
Unity
Unity means that the paragraph is all about one topic We want all our sentences
within the paragraph to relate to the topic sentence. If it doesn’t support the topic
sentence or give more information about a detail, we don’t want it in that paragraph!
Look at the five sentences below. Decide which sentences could be added to the
Goldilocks Story. Decide where in the story these sentences should go. Then decide,
which sentences should not be added. Why should these sentences not be added?
1.
The bears asked, “Who are you? What are you doing in our house?”
1.
She tried to glue the chair back together but she just messed it up more so she
left it.
1.
Goldilocks’ mother was very worried about her.
1.
Goldilocks was very hungry.
1.
She was wearing a red dress.
Coherence
A paragraph is cohesive when all the sentences are in the correct order and flow
together. They make sense. If we told the Goldilocks Story with the events out of order,
our paragraph is not cohesive. If we didn’t use time transitions, our paragraph
wouldn’t be cohesive. If we added a detail in the wrong place, our paragraph would
not be cohesive.
Look at the Goldilocks Story below. It is not cohesive. Why?
One sunny day, Goldilocks was out for a walk and came across a house. She went
inside. Goldilocks was very hungry. She went into the living room and saw three chairs.
She tried out the first chair. It was too hard. She tried the second chair. It was too soft.
She tried the third chair. It was just right. Uh-oh! The chair broke! Before that, she
went into the kitchen and found three bowls of porridge. She tasted the first bowl. It
was too hot. She tasted the second bowl. It was too cold. She tasted the third bowl. It
was just right. She ate it all up. About an hour later, the bears came home and they
found her sleeping in Baby Bear’s bed. Finally, she went into the bedroom and saw
three beds. She tried the third bed. It was just right! She fell asleep. When she had
tried the first bed, it was too flat and the second bed was too bumpy. They woke her
up. She was so scared that she screamed. She jumped out of the bed and ran home.
Goldilocks learned never to go into someone’s house when that person isn’t home.
Coherence
A paragraph is cohesive when all the sentences are in the correct order and flow
together. They make sense. If we told the Goldilocks Story with the events out of order,
our paragraph is not cohesive. If we didn’t use time transitions, our paragraph
wouldn’t be cohesive. If we added a detail in the wrong place, our paragraph would
not be cohesive.
Look at the Goldilocks Story below. It is not cohesive. Why?
One sunny day, Goldilocks was out for a walk and came across a house. She went
inside. Goldilocks was very hungry. She went into the living room and saw three
chairs. She tried out the first chair. It was too hard. She tried the second chair. It was
too soft. She tried the third chair. It was just right. Uh-oh! The chair broke! Before
that, she went into the kitchen and found three bowls of porridge. She tasted the first
bowl. It was too hot. She tasted the second bowl. It was too cold. She tasted the third
bowl. It was just right. She ate it all up. About an hour later, the bears came home and
they found her sleeping in Baby Bear’s bed. Finally, she went into the bedroom and
saw three beds. She tried the third bed. It was just right! She fell asleep. When she
had tried the first bed, it was too flat and the second bed was too bumpy. They woke
her up. She was so scared that she screamed. She jumped out of the bed and ran
home. Goldilocks learned never to go into someone’s house when that person isn’t
home.
1 paragraph
Formatting
Process Paragraph
We use a
rubric to
grade our
work.
RUBRIC:
This is the
sheet that
explains how
you are
graded.
RUBRIC: 40 points
Organization and Content:
• Introduction: The paragraph begins with a topic sentence.
• Body: The paragraph has supporting material: facts,
details, examples. Essay demonstrates unity and
coherence. Appropriate transitions (first, then, next,
finally, etc.) are used to link paragraphs.
• Conclusion: The conclusion summarizes the main points or
restates the thesis statement. It begins with a conclusion
signal and leaves the reader with the writer’s final thoughts
on the topic.
Rubric: 50 points
Grammar, Sentence Structure, and Mechanics:
• Grammar: S-V agreement; Verb Forms and Verb Tenses; Clauses;
Articles and Prepositions; Pronoun Reference, Word Order, SingularPlural Forms, Missing subjects or verbs.
• Sentence Structure: The essay demonstrates some sentence
variety – simple, compound and complex sentences. Some Missing
Verbs/Subjects
• Mechanics and Format: The essay demonstrates correct use of
punctuation, commas, and capitalization. Title centered; first line of
each paragraph indented; margins on both sides; text doublespaced; student’s name, date, course number in the upper left
corner of the page.
Rubric: 10 points
Vocabulary:
• Writer attempts to use vocabulary appropriate
for academic writing. Writer demonstrates
knowledge of word forms. Writer
demonstrates some knowledge of synonyms.
Spelling is mostly accurate.
Grammar Point pg 7
•
•
•
•
Look at the Capitalization Rules on pg 7.
Memorize these rules!
Complete pg 8 and 9 using the rules.
Make sure to use correct capitalization rules
when writing your paragraph.
• CHECK YOUR CAPITALIZATION before you turn
in your paragraph next week!
HOMEWORK
Write a paragraph with a topic sentence, support
sentences, transitions, details, and a conclusion
about the prompt you did prewriting on.
Turn in next week for grade. Make sure to check
your capitalization!
*Make sure to turn in your pre-writing! I want to
see the list attached to the paper.
Next Week
• Come with your paragraph.
• We will conference together for 5-7 minutes
individually.
• We will take a practice exam called a timedwriting. You will have 70 minutes to write on a
specific prompt.
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