Shaping a New Nation - Miss O`Mallan`s World

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Chapter 5
Section 1
 States relationship to National government
 Direct Democracy - too much power in the hands of
the uneducated masses
 Republic - citizens rule through their elected
representatives
 REPUBLICANISM- idea that govts should be based on
the consent of the people
 Individual State
Constitutions
 Guaranteed specific
rights for citizens
including freedom of
speech, religion & the
press
 Limited power of gov.
leaders
 Liberty over Equality
 Differed on the right to
vote
 White males could
 African Americans
generally couldn’t
 Some states required
property ownership
 Women could not vote
How much representation each of the different sized
states would receive in Congress?
2. How the states and federal government would share
power?
3. How to govern the land west of the Appalachian
Mountains?
1.
1. How much representation each of the
different sized states would receive in
Congress?
 States = political entities, not equal in size,
wealth, & population
 Should delegates represent people or states?
 Members of Continental Congress decided
each state would have 1 vote regardless of
size
2.
How the states and federal government would share
power?
 Congress proposed a new type of govt in a set of laws:
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION- 2 levels of shared
fundamental powers
 State govts supreme in some matters, natl govt supreme
in other matters
 Gave natl govt power to declare war, make peace, & sign
treaties
 No natl power to enforce the laws of Congress
3. How to govern the land west of the
Appalachian Mountains?
 LAND ORDINANCE OF 1785
 federal government surveyed the land and sold
it to settlers at affordable prices.
 Northwest Ordinance of 1787
 organized the land into territories.
 established a procedure for how territories
became states.
 Did little to unify the country
 States acted in their own interests with little regard for
other states or the nation as a whole
 1 vote/state created imbalance of political power
 23,375= Georgia 235,000=Massachusetts
 All states had to agree to amend the Articles
 Changes in govt difficult to achieve
 Continental Congress could not tax (no revenue)
 Congress had no power to deal with foreign relations
 Spain closing off Mississippi, Britain refusing to leave
Section 2
 Daniel Shays- veteran of the Revolutionary War. Angry
because of his debt due to taxation.
 1787: Group of farmers revolted against the state
(Massachusetts). Led by Daniel Shays. Called Shays’s
Rebellion
 Farmers accused the state of taxing them too much
 Panic & fear throughout the nation (chaos & violence)
 Prior to Shays’s Rebellion James Madison (of VA) called a
mtg. of state delegates to discuss interstate trade only 5
states represented
 After word spread about Shays’s Rebellion, all 12 states sent
delegates (except R.I.) went to the Philadelphia convention
1. How do give fair representation to small and large
states?
 James Madison’s VA Plan (representation based on
population) Larger the state = more political pwr
 New Jersey Plan – each state equal rep. no matter
size
 THE GREAT COMPROMISE-developed by Roger
Sherman. Legislature w/2 houses:
 1. House of Reps- based on size of popln
 2. Senate – 2 members
2. Should slaves be included in population
count?
 North– no, South– yes.
 Delegates compromised. Three-fifths
Compromise- 3/5ths of number of slaves
could be included in popln
 FEDERALISM- power divided between national &
state
POWERS
 NATIONAL GOVT PWRS: control of foreign affairs,
providing national defense, regulating trade b/w states
 STATE PWRS: providing for & supervising education,
establishing marriage laws, trade w/in state
 BOTH: right to tax, borrow money, pay debts, establish
courts
 Delegates limited power of Fed. Govt
 seperated powers w/in Natl Govt
 Legislative Branch, senate, house of rep’s the power to





make laws
EXECUTIVE BRANCH: carry out the laws
LEGISLATIVE: make the laws
JUDICIAL: interpret & settle disputes
CHECKS & BALANCES- no 1 branch became too
powerful
Electoral college- cast ballots for candidates
Section 3
Background
 Delegates to the Philadelphia convention drafted the
Constitution, newspapers printed the full text &
Americans were shocked (radical changes)
 Expected amendments to the Articles
 Supporters & opponents battled over controversies




FEDERALISTS
division of pwrs & checks & balances would protect
Americans from the tyranny of centralized auth.
George Washington, James Madison, & Alexander
Hamilton
Garnered much support from urban centers (regulate
trade)
The Federalist: analysis & explanation of pwrs &
limits on pwr of majorities




ANTIFEDERALISTS
list of possible abuses of pwr by a strong central govt;
Contitution’s lack of protection for indiv. Rights
Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams & Richard Henry Lee
Garnered much support from rural areas (people
feared strong govt that might add to tax burden)
Letters from the Federal Farmer publication listed
rights they believed should be protected (freedoms:
press, rel., unreasonable search, right to trial by jury)
 U.S. Constitution did not guarantee any rights for




people or states.
Lack of a bill of rights (formal summary of citizens’
rights & freedoms) serious drawback
Citizens wanted written guarantees of freedom of
press, speech, & religion; trial by jury & right to bear
arms
Bill of Rights was added in order to ratify the
Constitution
New govt began 3/4/1789
 Sept. 1789 Congress submits 12 amendments to state
leg. for ratification
 December 1791: 3/4ths of the states ratified 10 of the 12
amendments: BILL OF RIGHTS
Note:
 Protection of rights & freedoms did not apply to Native
Americans & slaves. Women were not mentioned
 Blacks were allowed to vote in some northern states
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