Simple, Compound, and Complex Sentences May, 7 2012 Read and Observe It was my birthday. I asked for a bike. My parents bought me a red bike. It had white stripes on the fenders. I like to ride my bike everywhere. I like to ride on smooth pavement best. I am not allowed to ride on the sidewalk. People walk on the sidewalk. I ride on the bike trail in the park. I. Simple Sentences All of the sentences in the paragraph above are simple sentences No, that’s not an insult; it is the grammatical term for them . These sentences are also called independent clauses—they are independent because they can stand alone. I. Simple Sentences cont. Simple sentences have the components that all independent clauses need to possess: ◦ A subject ◦ A verb ◦ Express a complete thought II. Compound Sentences -There are absolutely no compound sentences in the paragraph above. If the author had used a few compound sentences, the flow of the paragraph would likely be less choppy for the reader. Compound sentences combine two independent clauses. Compound Sentence Type One Mr. Goldberg drove to Malley’s Chocolate Shop, and he purchased a box of chocolates for Ms. Long. ◦ How are the independent clauses combined? Compound Sentence Type Two Ms. Long purchased a Circus Devils record for Mr. Goldberg’s birthday; he loves listening to music. ◦ How are the independent clauses combined? Compound Sentence Type Three Ms. Long loved the chocolates Mr. Goldberg gave her; however, she had to work out an extra thirty minutes the next time she went to the gym. ◦ How are the independent clauses combined? Writing Compound Sentences Compound Sentences can be successfully written in three ways: Type One: Insert a comma and a coordinating conjunction between the two independent clauses. ◦ Examples of coordinating conjunctions: For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so: FANBOYS Writing Compound Sentences Type Two: Insert a semicolon between two independent clauses that are closely related. Writing Compound Sentences Type Three: Insert semicolon and a conjunctive adverb followed by a comma between the two independent clauses. ◦ Examples of conjunctive adverbs: Therefore, instead, meanwhile, still, also, nevertheless, or however. Complex Sentences A complex sentence is made up of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses connected to it. A dependent clause cannot stand on its own because it does not express a complete thought. Examples of Dependent Clauses Examples of dependent clauses include the following: ◦ because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon ◦ while he waited at the train station ◦ after they left on the bus Dependent Clauses Dependent clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions. ◦ Examples of Subordinating Conjunctions: After, although, as, because, before, how, if, once, since, than, that, though, until, when, where, whether, while, etc. Complex Sentence Type One Although Alejandro despises asparagus, he ate it to please the chef. ◦ How is the sentence constructed? Where is the dependent clause located? How is it attached to the independent clause? Complex Sentence Type Two Pilar has earned an A in language arts since she began working with a tutor. ◦ How is the sentence constructed? Where is the dependent clause located? How is it attached to the independent clause?