Grammar * Unit 1 Lessons 1-17

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GRAMMAR – UNIT 1 LESSONS 1-17
UNIT 1 - LESSON 1------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 1------
• Parts of Speech
The function of different groups of words
Useful???
–Construct sentences
–Punctuation
–Common Language with professionals
–HSAP
SUMMARY
GRAMMAR MATTERS ------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 2------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 2------
NOUNS
Thing One: concrete
person, place, thing
Thing Two: abstract
Capitalization
common: General- lowercase
Proper: Specific- Capitalize
COPY AND CORRECT THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES
• jin song ran across tiananmen square.
• A girl ran across the square.
• margarette spied the eiffel tower.
• A woman spied a tower.
• witi ihimaera called to the whales.
• A man called to moby dick.
.
COPY AND CORRECT THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES
.
• louise erdrich wrote a book called tracks.
• gabriel walked to machu pichu.
• marc matabane wrote about south africa.
• A man wrote about a province in africa.
SUMMARY
GRAMMAR MATTERS ------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 3------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 3------
• To make most nouns plural
---add an s
Add s to make abbreviations plural
 ch, sh, x, or z
Add an es
• If the word ends in y, look at the letter before the y
–vowel Add an s
–consonant Change the y to an i and add es
Exception to the y rules:
Family name or a product name: Add an s
Words that end in o
Memorize the spellings
SUMMARY
GRAMMAR MATTERS ------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 4------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 4------
• Compound Nouns Nouns made up of more than one word
add an s
 When making compound nouns plural, ------------- on the
important noun.
Examples: brothers-in-law, runners-up.
A few nouns you just have to memorize
- tooth teeth
oxen
mouse mice
-ox
- child children
deer deer
- knife knives
With some plural forms, you do have a choice :
Computer mouse
Cactus
Index
Bus
mice or mouses
cacti or cactuses
indices or indexes
Buses or busses
dictionary
 When in doubt, check a ______________.
The first
plural form listed is the one that is the most common.
SUMMARY
GRAMMAR MATTERS ------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 5------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 5------
Lesson 5 - Verbs
A ________ is a word that
_____________________,
_____ another verb to a
subject , _______ another
verb or, or merely indicates
___________.
Recognize the Types
Action
Linking
Helping
SUMMARY
GRAMMAR MATTERS ------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 6------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 6------
Action Verbs
An ________
verb
expresses
__________
or________
action.


Physical Action:
_________________
_________________
_________________

Mental Action:
_________________
_________________
_____
Linking Verbs
A ________
verb does not
express action; it
_____________
a word (a noun,
pronoun, or
adjective that
identifies or
describes the
subject) in the
_____________
to the
___________.
Linking Verbs
Am
Is
Are
Was
Were
Be
Being
Been
Taste
Feel
Smell
Sound
Look
Stay
Appear
Become
Seem
Grow
Remain
Helping Verbs
A _________
verb helps the
main verb to
make a
statement. A
verb ______ is a
main verb and
its
________verbs.
This phrase can
be interrupted by
other verbs.
Helping Verbs
Am
Is
Are
Was
Were
Be
Being
Been
Have
Has
Had
Do
Did
Does
Shall
Will
Should
Will
May
Might
Must
Can
Could
SUMMARY
GRAMMAR MATTERS ------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 7------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 7------
VERBS
Linking
Helping
 Action

Action Verbs and Linking Verbs
 Action
verbs
describe
action.
 Run
 Jump

Linking or being verbs describe a
state of being.
linking verbs are not about action but
about connecting other words together.
The verb to be is the basic linking verb.
The word is a form of the verb to be.
 Swim
is
Action or Linking – Practice
Linking
2. The monkey looked for food.
Action
3. The soup tasted good.
Linking
4. I tasted the soup.
Action
5. He grew into a tall man.
Action
6. He grew tired of walking. Linking
7. Mother appeared happy at her party. Linking
8. Mother appeared quietly in the room. Action
9. The bugle sounded loudly. Action
10. The bugle sounds loud.
Linking
1.
The monkey looked hungry.
SUMMARY
GRAMMAR MATTERS ------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 8------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 8------
VERBS
•Linking
• Helping
• Action
To Be:
Simple Forms of
Present
I
am
she/he/it
is
we/you/they are
Past
was
was
were
Others that Link ….
•
•
•
•
Seem
Appear
Look
Become
Verbs that describe the
senses….
• Feel
• smell
NOTE: There are at least 60 linking verbs in the
English language.
SUMMARY
GRAMMAR MATTERS ------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 9------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 9------
Action verbs are either
transitive or intransitive.
• Transitive verbs
express action
upon a direct
object.
• The dog bit me.
• She appealed the decision.
• I dropped my backpack.
• Intransitive verbs
do not express
action upon a
direct object.
• The rain poured through the
open window.
• The experiment failed.
• The backpack dropped into
the mud.
Transitive / Intransitive
 A ________
verb is a verb that has _________
of the action to complete its meaning.
 An
________ verb is a verb that does ______
have a __________ of the action.
Transitive / Intransitive
 Some
verbs can be ________ or __________
depending on how they are used.
 Transitive
verbs _________ action to an object
and if you take the object out, it doesn’t make
sense.
Michael hit the ball.
SUMMARY
GRAMMAR MATTERS ------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 10------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 10------
Transitive Verbs have Voice.
• Active voice – the
subject is doing
the action.
• Sharon made mistakes.
• The dog bit him.
• I dropped the backpack.
• Passive voice – the
subject is receiving
the action.
• Use passive sparingly.
• If the doer of the action is
unknown.
• If the object is more
important than the doer
of the action.
• Many errors were made in
the yearbook captions.
Active or Passive – Practice
1.
A delicious aroma was sent through the house by the baking lasagna.
passive
2. The daVinci masterpiece was hung in the Louvre in Paris.
Passive
3. Pepe left the water running in the bathtub. active
4. Someone broke the window while we were away.
active
5. John guarantees a splendid time for us all.
active
6. Many errors were made in the baseball game. passive
7. Alex made many errors in the baseball game.
active
active
8. The mechanic replaced the car’s shock absorbers.
9. I am expected at home at midnight by my parents.
passive
10. Praise for a job well done is appreciated by everyone. passive
Change the passive voice to the active
1. A delicious aroma was sent through the house by
the baking lasagna.
2. The daVinci masterpiece was hung in the Louvre in
Paris.
3. Many errors were made in the baseball game.
4. I am expected at home at midnight by my parents.
5. Praise for a job well done is appreciated by
everyone.
SUMMARY
GRAMMAR MATTERS ------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 11------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 11------
Complications……
Some verbs can be both linking verbs
and action verbs. • We grow tired.
See if
you can
replace the
verb with a
form of to
be. If so, it is
probably a
linking verb.
• A tip –
• We are tired.
• It tastes salty.
• It is salty.
• He smells badly.
• He is badly.
Every complete sentence contains two parts:
•a subject
• a predicate.
She ate pizza
pizza.
• The subject is what (or
whom) the sentence is
about,
• The predicate tells
something about the
subject.
SUMMARY
GRAMMAR MATTERS ------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 12------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 12------
A few commonly misused verbs:
…. Sit & Set
Sit
– to be
seated
Set – to put
or place
something
I always ________ near
a window.
Please _______ the
plant near the window.
A few commonly misused verbs:
…. Rise & Raise
Rise
– to go
up
Raise – to
lift something
________ your hands.
Please _______ the and
recite the poem.
A few commonly misused verbs:
…. Lie & Lay
Lie
– to
recline
Lay –to put
or play
something.
She ________ down to
nap.
Please _______ the
book here.
SUMMARY
GRAMMAR MATTERS ------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 13------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 13------
And others …






Affect – to influence
Effect – to accomplish or
the result of an action

Bring – movement
toward you
Take – movement away
from you

Can – ability
May – permission




Imply – to suggest
Infer – To draw a
conclusion
Learn – To obtain
knowledge
Teach – to give
instruction
Let – to allow
Leave – to go away from
or to cause to remain
Review Lesson 1
• Figures of Speech
• Nouns
• Plural
• Verbs
SUMMARY
GRAMMAR MATTERS ------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 14------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 14------
Verb Tenses:
Verbs come in three varieties:

Past


Present


Future

Yesterday
Today
Tomorrow
SUMMARY
GRAMMAR MATTERS ------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 15------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 15------
Each verb tense can be further
sliced into more categories.
The end of the
action is
unknown or
unimportant.
The action has
ended or will
end; it is
complete or will
be completed.
The action is
ongoing,
progressing, or
will be
ongoing; it is
continuous.
The action
progressed for a
while before it
ended or before
it will end.
Simple ---- but complicated.
Simple present can describe a state
(wanting, thinking, feeling), an
instantaneous action (an instruction, a
brief action), or a habit– an ongoing or
repeated action (sneezing, editing,
reading).

I want chocolate.

Put the chocolate in the bowl.

She eats Chocolate.
SUMMARY
GRAMMAR MATTERS ------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 16------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 16------
Verbs – Regular & Irregular
Regular verbs
follow a pattern:
you make them
past tense by
adding d or ed.
Irregular Verbs- do not follow a pattern:

drawed?
Drew

Goed?
Went

flinged?
Flung
Why?????
Common Irregular Verbs

Am
… Was

Do
… Did

Draw … Drew

Fling
… Flung

Go
… Went

Run
… Ran

Say
… Said

See
… Saw

Sit
… Sat
SUMMARY
GRAMMAR MATTERS ------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 17------
UNIT 1 - LESSON 17------
Mood
Verbs can be:

commanding
(imperative)

matter-of-fact
(indicative)

doubtful or wishful (subjunctive)
imperative subjunctive indicative
COMMANDING
MATTER-OF-FACT
DOUBTFUL
or
Don’t talk to me!
imperative
Squiggly ate too much.
indicative
I wish I were a rock star
subjunctive
WISHFUL
If I were a rich girl
The mood of the verb to be, when you use
the phrase I were, is called the
subjunctive mood.
SUMMARY
I were often
follows if
because if
often means
you are
wishing or
imagining.
In a
subjunctive
sentence, the
verb is also
often
accompanied
by a
statement
using wishful
words like
would or
could.
If I were ….
GRAMMAR MATTERS ------
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